Trombone With Various Other Ensembles, Pre-1800

A group of musicians presumably preparing for a performance is depicted in Lionello Spada's painting, "Concert" (c. 1610, Rome).

A group of musicians presumably preparing for a performance is depicted in Lionello Spada’s painting, “Concert” (c. 1610, Rome).

c. 1480—Ferrara, Italy: The Casanatense manuscript, a collection of secular polyphony “identified with the repertories used by the wind bands of Italian courts and cities” is likely prepared specifically for the Ferrara court’s wind players, including trombones (quote from Brown and Polk, Instrumental Music 128; see also Lockwood, Music in Renaissance Ferrara 299; and Polk, Patronage and Innovation). As Keith Polk says, “In any case, at the very minimum, the repertory contained in the Casanatense manuscript would have been played by the court shawms and trombones, and would have formed a part of the repertory of wind players in general” (Polk, Patronage and Innovation; see also Lockwood, Music in Renaissance Ferrara 299).

1494—Venice, Italy: In a letter written by Giovanni Alvise, a city musician of Venice, Alvise discusses arrangements of motets by Obrecht and Busnois for wind band, specifically mentioning the trombone by name, and other parts by range only: “In these past days we have made instrumental arrangements of certain motets, of which I am sending two to your Lordship. One of these is a work of Obrecht, i.e. for four voices, two sopranos, a tenor and a ‘contra alto.’ And because we are six, I have added two bass parts to be played by trombones” (Polk, German 73, 85).

1530-57—A series of works published by Pierre Attaignant, beginning with the Six Galliardes et six Pavanes, is probably intended for a wind band of trombones and shawms (Whitwell, Renaissance 70).

1539—Florence, Italy: “On the entrance of the most illustrious Duchess” at the wedding procession of Duke Cosimo I and Leonora of Toledo, Corteccia’s motet, a 8, Ingredere felicissimis auspiciis urbem tuam Helionora, is “sung over the archway of the great door of the Porta al Prato with 24 voices on one side and on the other 4 trombones and 4 cornetti” (Brown Sixteenth-Century Instrumentation, 88; Reese 366). The wedding festivities also include a madrigal performed by a female vocalist and 4 trombones; a contemporary account records, “This last act was closed by Night, dressed in a black silk veil with a blue-starred headdress, the moon above her forehead….She sang sweetly Ventien ’ almo riposo: ecco ch ’ io torno to the accompaniment of 4 trombones (Bowles, Musical Ensembles 25).

1541—Paul Kugelmann, court trumpeter in Königsberg, writes “Laudate Dominum,” a vocal canon accompanied by 4 trombones and 4 cornetts (Whitwell, Catalog Before 1500 78).

1545—In his description of Le dixiesme livre, a collection of music, Susato reviews the contents: “…containing various chansons for your practice, in which you use instruments that we most often use in the noble and excellent art of music: in war, one uses trumpets, sackbuts [bucines], and German pipes…” (Forney, New Insights 16).

1547—France: King Henry II visits Lyons. One of the pieces composed to celebrate the visit is Piero Manucci’s “Io che del Bronzo fui,” an intermedio sung by 4 voices and accompanied by 3 crumhorns and a sackbut (Whitwell, Renaissance 76).

1548—In a description of the intermedio La Calandvia for Bernardo Dovizi, mention is made of a work by Piero Manucci. The piece, L’eta mi Chiamo Aarato e venga a 5, calls for 5 voices, 2 cornetts, and 3 trombones (Collver 188).

1558—In Germany, Krüger publishes a volume of vocal chorales with accompaniments of organ and 4 to 6 trombones (Daubeny 95).

1565—Florence, Italy: Wedding festivities for Prince Francesco de’ Medici and Johanna of Austria include performance of the comedy La Cofanaria by Francesco d’Ambra, with interludes (intermedii) between the acts. The trombone is used in several different settings. The 1st intermedio, for example, calls for 2 trombones (Westrup, Monteverdi and the Orchestra), and the 5th intermedio features Striggio’s madrigal Fuggi mia speme, fuggi, accompanied by 4 violins and 4 offstage trombones (Bowles, Musical Ensembles 53).

1567—Florence, Italy: Alessandro Striggio writes 6 intermedi for performance with Lotto del Mazzo’s I Fabii. The intermedii make extensive use of trombone. For example, the second intermedio features music sung by a bass and soprano voice, accompanied behind the scenes by 4 trombones, 3 harpsichords, 3 lutes, 4 viols, 2 recorders, and a transverse flute. The third intermedio makes use of trombone in a pastoral scene. The fifth intermedio features 12 female voices representing heaven in a 5-part madrigal, supported by 2 trombones, 4 viols, 1 lyra, 1 lute, and 1 muted cornett, while earth is represented by 2 trombones and 3 flutes. The sixth intermedio features a 6-part canzona sung by 12 voices and accompanied by 4 trombones, 2 cornetts, 6 lutes, 1 bass viol, 1 soprano viol, 2 recorders, and 1 transverse flute (Weaver, Sixteenth-Century Instrumentation).

1567—Florence, Italy: Three weeks of festivities celebrating the birth of a Leonora to Grand Duke Francesco de’ Medici and Princess Johanna of Austria begin with a hunt, followed by an evening pageant of hunters; a contemporary account says, “Afterwards they had sixteen musicians, some of whom sang and others who played [instruments]….The song was written on order of the Illustrious Duke by a young gentleman from our city, in the manner of our forefathers, accustomed to composing dance music….[There were] huge and amazing triumph-wagons, with all sorts of inventions….There were sixteen musicians, as I’ve said, divided as follows: the music was in six parts, composed by that excellent Francesco Corteccia: that is, all the voices doubled by the tenor out-of-doors, and accompanied and doubled by two trombones, two crumhorns and two cornetts, all of which together produced a sweet harmony” (Bowles, Musical Ensembles 57). Later there is another dramatic procession: “On the next Thursday, the twelfth of the present [month], Signor Triano Boba…continuing the entertainment with excellent musicians, ordered an outdoor masquerade [featuring] a carriage of widows, which proceeded first to His Highness and then to the noblest houses in the city, entering them to sing and play the song [Hor che vedove, e sole] written by Domenico Mellini to music composed by that excellent Alessandro Striggio, in six parts, and accompanied by two viols, two trombones, two flutes and two lutes, which produced a harmonious and most sweet harmony (Bowles, Musical Ensembles 57). The following Sunday the cardinal hosts a festival in front of the old Medici palace that includes, according to a contemporary account, “excellent musicians, some vocal and some with instruments, singing and playing the following canzona [Per questi duo guerrier famosi] with words by Scipione dale Palle, an excellent Sienese musician, and music by Stefano Rossetto, for six [voices] accompanied by two trombones, two lutes, a lira [viol], a gravecembalo, a cornett and a flute (Bowles, Music Ensembles 57). Another masquerade on the following Monday features a madrigal, Scorte dal chiaro lune, by Alessandro Striggio, “in four parts, accompanied by trombones and cornetts: that is, the first time with voices alone, unaccompanied; and the second time with instruments and voices together…the voices were doubled on [each] part; and between the singers and instrumentalists were a large number [of performers]” (Bowles, Music Ensembles 58). On the final day of the festivities, an allegorical pageant, The Triumph of Fortune, again features trombones; a contemporary account states: “[The pageant] was replete with musicians who sang and played the song [Donne poscia ch’a voi non fatte ancelle le grazie]. The [pageant-] ship symbolized the triumph of Fortune….[The song] was written by a young gentleman from Siena, with music by Steffano Rossetto, in six parts, accompanied by three trombones, two cornetts, a flute and a lira [da braccio]” (Bowles, Music Ensembles 58).

1568—Munich, Germany: During a banquet celebrating the marriage of Wilhelm V of Bavaria to Renata (Reneé) of Lorraine, trombone participates in numerous pieces: Musicians play Battaglia a 8 of Annibale Padovano on trombones and cornetts, then a 7-voice motet by Lassus with 5 cornetts and 2 trombones, followed by a madrigal by Alessandro Striggio for 6 bass trombones (one of which plays an octave lower than usual). During another course, 5 trombones and a cornett participate in works by organist Annibale Padovano and “other masters” (Haar, Munich 251, 253; Bowles, Musical Ensembles 60). At least 3 other banquet performances include trombone. One of them features, according to eyewitness Massimo Troiano, “the wind instruments, now with cornamuse, now with recorders, now with flutes, and now with trombones [tromboni] and cornetts” (Boydell, Crumhorn 295). In another banquet, “…here there played sweetly a harpsichord, a trombone [trombone], a recorder, a lute, a cornamusa, a mute cornett, a viola da Gamba, and a flute, which music certainly pleased me greatly” (Boydell, Crumhorn 295). During the “fruit course” of the final banquet of the celebrations, a 24-part work is performed that includes “Eight viole, eight viole da braccio, and eight different instruments, namely a curtal, a cornamusa, a mute cornett, an alto cornett, a large twisted cornett, a fiffaro, a dolzaina, and a large trombone [un Trombone, Grosso]” (Boydell, Crumhorn 296). The performance is followed by a vocal version of the same piece by the members of the ducal chapel (Haar, Munich 254). According to Reese, Alessandro Striggio’s 40-part motet, Ecce beatam lucen, is performed at the celebrations, utilizing a mixed consort of 8 trombones, 8 viols, 8 recorders, 2 choirs of 8 voices, a bass lute, and a harpsichord (Reese, 487).

1568—Florence, Italy: Wedding celebrations for the marriage of Virginia de’ Medici to Cesare d’Este include intermedii for the comedy L’Amico fide, by Giovanni Bardi. Music for the intermedii is by Bardi and Alessandro Striggio. In the 2nd intermedio, a “horrible old man with a scraggly beard, naked and covered with flames,” sings to the accompaniment of trombones and bass viols. In the 3rd intermedio, birds signaling the arrival of spring are accompanied by lutes, harps, muted cornets, trombones, and dulcians. In the 4th intermedio, an angry Neptune sings to the accompaniment of trombones, lutes, harps, and transverse flutes (Nagler, Theatre Festivals of the Medici 58-65).

1569—Orlando di Lasso’s “Motette,” which is performed by 5 cornetts and 2 trombones, is contained in M. Troiano, Dialoghi, Venice (Whitwell, Catalog Before 1500 79).

c. 1575—Orlando di Lasso instrumental works that feature trombone include Concupiscendo concupiscit a 6 (2 cornetts, 4 trombones); Domine quid multiplicati sunt a 6 (2 cornetts, 2 “Pumart,” 2 trombones); Cantate Domino canticum novum (2 cornetts, “Pumart,” 3 trombones); Deus in adiutorium meum indende (2 cornetts, 3 “Pumart,” trombone); Laudate pueri a 7 (2 cornetts, 2 “Pumart,” 3 trombones); Decantabat populus a 7 (6 cornetts, trombone); Domine, quid multiplicati sunt a 6 (2 cornetts, 2 “Pumart,” 2 trombones); Laudate Hierusalem dominum a 6 (2 cornetts, 2 “Pumart,” 2 trombones); Omnia tempus habent a 8 (cornett, “Pumart,” 4 trombones); Surge propera a 6 (2 cornetts, 4 trombones); Angelus Domini descendit de coelo a 6 (2 cornetts, “Pumart,” 3 trombones) (Collver 57).

1579—Florence, Italy: 4 trombones participate in a performance by a large mixed consort: “On the preceding evening there was a concert in honor of the Venetian noblemen who had come to Florence with the father of Grand Duchess Bianca, Bartolomeo Cappello, and other relatives of hers. Twelve harpsichords [clavicordi], an organ, four trombones, two cornetts, thirty viols, a violin, a piffaro, a double-bass, and twelve lutes took part in the concert and made a lovely sound. The words, in praise of the Grand duchess, were set to music by Signor Striggio” (Newcomb 33).

c. 1580—Italy: Alessandro Striggio (c. 1540-1592) writes Ecco ch’io lass’il core a 6, which is scored for 3 trombones, 2 cornetts, and Pumart (Collver 70).

1587—Mantua, Italy: Trombones perform with numerous other musicians at the coronation of Vincenzo Gonzaga as Duke of Mantua. As recorded in the festival book, “The music for the coronation Mass was sheer perfection, written for this specific event by that most excellent musician and maestro di cappella of His Highness, Signor Giaches de Wert, known for the superiority of his compositions [and] world famous; and following the ensemble pieces were [concerti] for organ, voices, cornets and trombones…” (Bowles, Music in Court Festivals; Sanders, Gonzaga 99).

1587—Venice, Italy: Existing vocal partbooks for Andrei ’s motet Judica me include handwritten suggestions for instrumental performance, including 2 parts for trombone (Kurtzman Monteverdi Vespers 140).

1589—Florence, Italy: Trombones are used to accompany voices singing of the horrors of Avernus in Giovanni Bardi’s “Miseri habitator,” one of the pieces performed at Florence festivities (Westrup, Monteverdi and the Orchestra).

1589—Pisa, Italy: At celebrations surrounding the visit of Christine [Madama Christierna de l’Oreno Gran duchessa di Toscana], a mock battle on the Arno River between Christians and Turks concludes with a performance of music by Antonio Buonavita in which the “Arabi” sing 3 ottave:the 1st is a solo aria; the 2nd is a work in 10 parts, performed by 52 people with 6 trombones, 4 cornetts, and organ; and the 3rd is a work in 20 parts, performed by the same forces as the 2nd ottava (Fenlon, Music and Culture in Late Renaissance Italy, 225).

1591—Italy: Luca Marenzio calls for trombone in the “Combatimento di Apolline col Serpente” of his Intermedii et Concerti (Collver 135).

1597—In Venice, Giovanni Gabrieli writes his first volume of Sacrae symphoniae, which utilizes trombone extensively. Included in the volume is Sonata pian e forte, one of the earliest large-ensemble works to indicate specific instrumentation and dynamics. It is an 8-part canzona for two choirs; the first choir calls for 3 trombones and a cornett, the second for 3 trombones and a violin. Another work from the collection, Canzon quarti toni a 15, calls for 12 trombones, 2 cornettos, and 1 violin. Canzon in Ecco duodecimi toni a 10 and Canzon sudetta accomodate per concertar both call for 2 trombones (Collver 51). According to musicologist David Schulenberg, “the most important instruments in this music [Venetian polychoral works]—after the organ, which furnished the basso continuo—were the cornetto and the sackbut.” (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list).

1599—London, England: Antony Holborne composes Pavans, Galliards, Almains, and other short Airs both grave, and light, in five parts, for Viols, Violins, or other Musicall Winde Instruments. Based on the title, which specifies Musicall Winde Instruments, the pieces are presumably performed in various combinations that likely include trombone (Boyd 163).

Early 1600s—Kassel, Germany: A five-part pavan by Landgrave Moritz of Hesse-Kassel specifies four parts: FiffaroCornettoTrombone, and dolzano. Landgrave Moritz, incidentally, is the same man credited with the discovery and sponsorship of the young Heinrich Schütz (Boydell, Crumhorn 402).

1602—Cremona, Italy: Lodovico Viadana specifies trombone in a collection of canzoni, Cento concerti ecclesiastici. For example, Canzon Francese in risposta calls for violin, cornett, 2 trombones, and organ (Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation; Collver 72).

1607—Mantua, Italy: Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo, considered by many the first true opera, uses 5 trombones (2 altos, 2 tenors, and a bass). Trombones are particularly prominent in the underworld scenes (Daubeny 95). An ensemble of trombones and cornettos plays in acts III and IV.

1607—Italy: Giulio Radino publishes a Magnificat which, though texted in all 16 parts, specifies Choro de Tromboni in 4 of the parts (Kurtzman, Monteverdi Vespers, 124).

1607—Italy: A posthumous print of Giulio Radino Padavano’s Concerti per sonare et cantare includes works by several composers. Amadio Freddi’s O Domine Iesu, which is included in the collection, is texted in all voices, but has a rubric calling for trombone in every part except the cantus. The Padavano collection also contains Media nocte, a 12-part motet by Orindio Bartolini that calls for trombone in the texted part-book (Kurtzman, Monteverdi Vespers, 121).

1608—Venice, Italy: Raverii’s 1608 collection, Canzoni per Sonare con ogni sorte di stromenti, includes Claudio Merulo’s Canzon vigesimaterza a 5 and Canzon decimaottava a 5.

1608—The earliest extant work by Heinrich Schütz, Ach wie sol lich doch in Freuden leben (Ah how shall I still live in joy), calls for 3 “choruses”: soprano voice with 3 lutes, soprano voice with 3 violas, and soprano voice with 3 trombones (Smallman 12).

1608—Venice, Italy: Il primo libro de’ concerti ecclesiastici…, a collection of vocal music by Arcangelo Crotti, includes numerous works that specify trombone. Among them are Sonata sopra Sancta Maria (soprano, 2 violins or cornetts, trombone, organ), O sacrum convivium (soprano, cornett, trombone, organ), Congratulamini (soprano, cornett, trombone, bass instrument, organ), and Pater peccavi (soprano, cornett, 3 trombones, organ) (Collver 101).

1609—Italy: A number of Girolamo Giacobbi’s psalms are scored for coro ordinario (SATB) and coro grave (alto voice with 3 trombones) (Roche, North Italian 120).

1609—Italy: A motet titled Cantate Domino contains the following rubric at the beginning of the piece: “To be concerted with two violins and two trombones” (Kurtzman, Monteverdi Vespers, 123).

1610—Italy: Giovanni Paolo Cima publishes Concerti ecclesiastici. One of the works in the collection, Capriccio d’Andrea Cima a 4, calls for violin, cornett, violone, trombone, and organ (Collver 47).

1610—Bologna, Italy: Adriano Banchieri writes a collection of 21 motets. Following the last page of music, the composer gives a table of several ways the motets may be performed; among the ways are “Trombone & Violino Stromenti” and “Basso Trombone & Soprano voce” (Collver 42).

1610—In Italy, Claudo Monteverdi composes Vespers, which uses trombones prominently. In 3 of the collection’s compositions, Domine ad Adjuvandum, Sonata Sopra Sancta Maria Ora Pro Nobis, and Magnificat a Sette Voci, Monteverdi calls for specific obbligato instruments, including trombone, multiple times (Kurtzman, Monteverdi Vespers, 412). In Sonata sopra Sancta Maria, not only does Monteverdi call for trombone, but he suggests the instrument as a substitute for the vivola da brazzo part (Bonta Violone 69). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list).

1610—Giovanni Paolo Cima specifies trombone in works from his collection Concerti ecclesiastici, including Sonata (trombone or violone) and Cappriccio d’Andrea Cima a 4 (1 trombone) (Collver 47).

1610—Italy: Lodovico Viadana, Sinfonia “La Bergamasca” for 8 instruments, from Sinfonie musicali.

1611—Italy: Amante Franzoni writes Canzon francese for 2 trombones, cornetto, and organ. The piece is part of a large collection called Concerti ecclesiastici (Collver 50).

1612—Italy: Lodovico da Viadana’s Salmi a Quattro chori contains instructions for performing his polychoral works for 4 choirs. In the third choir, he instructs, “the tenor is sung by several voices, with trombones.” In the fourth choir, “the [second] part is in a comfortable tenor register, sung by a number of voices with trombones; the third part is a baritone—again, this should have good voices or trombones, with violins. The bass is always low, so it should be sung by deep voices with trombones…” (Roche, North Italian 118).

1612—Bologna, Italy: Adriono Banchieri composes his Moderna armonia di canzoni alla francese. In the foreword, he suggests trombone as one of many options for performing the work (Collver 42). Numbers 11 through 25 are 2-part works (trombone and cornett), and numbers 26 and 27 are 4-part works (2 trombones and 2 cornetts) (Winkler 298).

1613—Italy: Ercole Porta’s Canzona 33, a 2-part work, calls for cornett and trombone. Canzona 34, a 3-part work, calls for 2 cornetts or violins and one trombone (Winkler 299). His La Luchina, canzon in risposta, from Vaga Ghirlanda di soavi, calls for violin, cornett, 2 trombones, and basso continuo (Collver 65). See also the Trombone and Violin(s) category for this entry.

1613—Imola, Italy: Giulio Belli writes Concerti ecclesiastici a due et a tre voci, which calls for trombone. Specifically, Canzona No. 16 is a 2-part work that specifies trombone, cornett (or violin), and continuo, and Canzona No. 29 is a 3-part work calling for 2 cornetts (or violins), trombone, and continuo (Collver 43). See also the Trombone and Violin(s) category for this entry.

1614—Brescia, Italy: Pietro Lappi calls for trombone in his vocal work, Sacrae melodiae (Collver 129).

c. 1615—Graz, Austria: Giovanni Valentini (c. 1582-1649) writes Canzon a 2 for trombone, cornett, and continuo; Sonata a 4 for trombone, cornettino, bassoon, and organ; and Sonata a 5 for trombone, 2 cornetts, 2 violins, and continuo (Collver 71).

1615—In Venice, Giovanni Gabrieli’s collection, Canzone e Sonate, is published 3 years after his death. Trombone is featured prominently. For example, Sonata XVIII a 14 calls for 10 trombones, Canzon IV a 6 calls for 2 trombones, and Sonata XX a 22 calls for 2 trombones (Collver 51).

1615—Venice, Italy: Symphoniae sacrae II, a collection of Giovanni Gabrieli’s works, is published 3 years after his death. Trombone is featured prominently. For example, Jubilate Deo is scored for alto voice, tenor voice, 5 trombones, 2 cornetts, and bassoon. Surrexit Christus is scored for alto voice, tenor voice, bass voice, 4 trombones, 2 cornetts, and 2 violins, and features extended instrumental sections (Roche, North Italian 115; Collver 116). Suscipe a 12 calls for 6 voices and 6 trombones (Bartlett, Giovanni Gabrieli: A Guide). Quem vidistis pastores a 14 utilizes 3 trombones (Collver 116).

1615—Italy: Arcangelo Borsaro writes for 2 cornetts (or violins), trombone, and organ in his La Matusaleme a tre from Odarati fiori (Collver 45). See also the Trombone and Violin(s) category for this entry.

1616—Munich, Germany: Bernardino Borlasca, newly-appointed Hofkapellmeister of the Bavarian court, publishes Scala Iacob, a collection of motets. The preface to the collection says the following about instrumentation of polychoral works: “The first choir is to consist of four principal parts with a soprano and a castrato or a pleasant falsetto, accompanied by a body of diverse stringed instruments such as viole da braccia or da gamba, a large harp, a lirone, or other similar instruments as are common today, especially at the Bavarian court; indeed His Serene Highness has examples of every kind of instrument of this sort, as well as men of exquisite excellence. Moreover, where the letter V. is found, the voice should sing; at the word Sinfonia the instruments should play, and at the letter T. the voices and instruments should play together. The second choir should, like the first, also consist of the same voices, but of different instruments. For, if in the first are found plucked instruments or strings, in the second should be placed wind instruments, such as cornetts and trombones, and pleasingly tempered by a violin playing the contralto part an octave above. In this same way in the first choir a cornett playing the same part, if it is a choir of viols, is such a different instrument that by following these instructions one will be assured of obtaining lovely and delightful harmony.” Borlasca’s collection contains at least a dozen works that utilize 2 or 3 trombones in such a manner (Collver 93).

1616—Stuttgart, Germany: Festivities celebrating the baptism of Prince Friedrich von Württemberg feature trombone extensively. First, at the service itself, the “Assum Version” festival book records, “The charming piece by Gregor Aichinger, Laudate Dominum &c. for eight voices, with two cornetts, four trombones and two bassoons was executed by the most select vocalists, ending most appropriately.” Following the baptism, a Te Deum by Salomon is sung, utilizing 3 ensembles: “The first, with a positive organ, four fiddles, two lutes, a small pipe and large contrabass viols, besides four singers. The other, with regal, one cornett, two trombones, a bassoon and four vocal soloists. The third also with a regal, three trombones, a serpent, in addition to four musicians. Whenever the three ensembles played together [there was added] the great organ, a cornett and a contra bassoon [Pommerten Vagoten]” (Bowles 199-200, 207).

1617—Dresden, Germany: A 3-day celebration is held to mark the centenary of the start of the Reformation. For the occasion, Heinrich Schütz writes several richly scored Psalm settings that include cornetts, trumpets, trombones, and timpani (Smallman 29).

1617—Venice, Italy: Biagio Marini’s Affetti musicali, a collection of instrumental music, includes several works that specify trombone, including La Foscarina (2 cornetts or violins, trombone or bassoon, continuo) (Winkler 299, Collver 45). For other works from the collection, see the category Trombone and Violin(s). 

1617-1626—Bologna, Italy: Camillo Cortellini, leader of the Concerto Palatino, publishes numerous concerted masses that include trombone. For example, his Messe a otto voce (1617) includes 3 trombones (Schnoebelen, Bologna 1580, 113; Guion, Missing Link).

1618—Venice, Italy: Biagio Marini’s Madrigali et symfonie a una, 2, 3, 4, 5 utilizes trombone in “La Rizza,” which calls for violin, cornett, trombone, bassoon, and basso continuo (Collver 60).

1618—Italy: Bastiano Miseroca writes Canzon a 3 for 2 cornetts, trombone, and continuo. The work is part of a larger collection called I pietosi affetti (Collver 62).

1618—Leipzig, Germany: Heinrich Schütz (1585-1672) utilizes trombones in Concert mit 11 StimmenHaus und Güter erbet man von Eltern, which he composes for the wedding of Michael Thomes and Anna Schules (Collver 167).

1618—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630) writes Das Te Deum Laudamus, a polychoral vocal work that calls for 2 trombones in one choir and 1 trombone in another (Collver 163).

1618/19—Giovanni Priuli, Canzon terza a 6 (due cornetti e viola, due tromboni e fagotto).

1618/19—Giovanni Priuli, Canzon quarta a 6 (3 violini, 3 tromboni).

1619—Wolfenbüttel, Germany: Polyhymnia caduceatrix et panegyrica, a collection by Michael Praetorius of compositions based on Lutheran hymns, includes vater unser im Himmelreich, a hymn accompanied by contrasting groups of 4-part strings and 4-part trombones (Leaver 281). Many others call for trombone, including Das alte Jahr ist nun vergahn, Nun komm der Heiden Heiland, Wachet auf, Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam (3 trombones), Jubiliret frölich, In dich hab ich gehoffet Her (4 trombones), Als der gütige Gotte, Lob sei dem allmächtigen Gott, Erhalt uns Herr bei deinen Wort (4 trombones), In dulci jubiloWenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein (3 trombones), and Herr Christ der einzig Gottes Sohn (Collver 151).

1619—In Dresden, Germany, Heinrich Schütz publishes Psalmen Davids, his first major collection of German church works. Many of the works include prominent trombone parts and obbligato roles (Smallman 35, 37, 42). Herr unser Herrscher and Zion spricht, der Herr hat mich Verlassen both call for 4 trombones, for example, while Ist nicht Ephraim mein theurer Sohn and Wol dem, der den Herren fürchtet call for 3 trombones (Collver 168). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list).

1619—Venice, Italy: Francesco Usper writes Compositioni armoniche. It includes Sonata a 8, which calls for 4 trombones, 2 cornetts, 2 violins, and continuo; Beatus qui intelligit, which utilizes 3 trombones (including “Trombone Grosso”); and Ego dormio a 8, which utilizes 4 trombones (Collver 71, 179).

1619—Modena, Italy: Motetti spirituali by Sulpitia Cesis calls for 2 trombones (Collver 99).

1619-20—Giovanni Priuli’s Canzon prima a 12 is published as part of a collection that includes a number of canzoni featuring trombone.

c. 1620—Giovanni Valentini calls for 2 cornetts and 2 trombones in Canzon a 4.

1620—In Italy, Ercole Porta’s Mass is scored for five-part choir, 3 trombones, and 2 violins (Roche 140).

1620—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Hermann Schein writes Lyrica Davidica, a vocal work that calls for trombone (Collver 163).

1621—Venice, Italy: Dario Castello, a member of the piffaro (wind band), composes numerous chamber compositions with parts for 1 or 2 trombones, particularly in his Quinta Sonata from Book I (Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation; Wigness 9). Referring to the virtuosic technical demands of the trombone parts in these sonatas, the second edition of Book 1 includes the following note: “He says, in short, that they are the consequence of the new style everyone is observing and hopes that the players will not give up on the first try” (Wigness 10). Specific pieces include Quarta Sonata (No. 47), Quinta Sonata (No. 48), and Sesta Sonata (No. 49), all of which are 2-part works scored for soprano and trombone or violetta, as well as Duodecima Sonata (No. 50), which is a 3-part work scored for 2 violins and trombone or violetta (Winkler 300).

1621—Hamburg, Germany: Samuel Scheidt, Ludi Musici.

1621—At the Bavarian court in Munich, cornettist and trombonist Giulio Martino Cesare writes a collection of 28 instrumental and vocal works called Musicali Melodie. It includes “La Augustana,” for cornett and trombone, “La Costanza,” for 2 cornetts (or violins) and trombone, “La Famosa,” for 2 cornetts (or violins) and trombone, “La Gioia,” for 2 cornetts (or violins) and trombone, “La Monachina,” for 3 cornetts and trombone, “La Fenice,” for 2 cornetts and 2 trombones, and “La Vittoria,” for 3 cornetts and 3 trombones (Whitwell Catalog Baroque 122; Collver 47).

1621—At the Habsburg Court in Vienna, Giovanni Valentini’s motet, “Messa, Magnificat et Iubilate Deo,” calls for 2 trombones with optional string substitutions, labeled “Alto Trombone o Violetta primo” and “Viola o trombone secondo” (Saunders).

1621—Giovanni Valentini writes Sonate a 4 for violin, cornettino, bassoon, trombone, and basso continuo. Performance edition available.

1621—Venice, Italy: Stefano Bernardi, maestro di cappella at the Verona Cathedral, publishes his Madrigaletti a due et a tre voci, which includes 7 canzonas a 3 that are scored for 2 violins or cornetts, theorba or bassoon or trombone, and continuo (Collver 43).

1622—Hamburg, Germany: Samuel Scheidt calls for trombone in his vocal work, Pars prima concertuum sacrorum. For example, both Concertus III and Concertus XII utilize multiple trombones (Collver 163).

1622—Vincenz Jelic [Jelich] writes Parnassia militia, which contains 4 ricercari for cornett, trombone, and continuo (Whitwell, Catalog Baroque 131; Collver 54).

1623—Casalmaggiore, Lombardy: Ignazio Donati’s psalm collection, Salmi boscarecci, features instrumental accompaniment of 3 trombones (or bassoons) and 3 violins (or cornetts). The composer instructs, “If one wishes to use the last six books for both voices and instruments, it should be noted that where it says solo, only the singer should sing, and where it says trombone or violin, only the instrument should play; in passages marked tutti, they both sing and play in unison” (Roche, North Italian 132).

1624—In Italy, a Mass by Giovanni Priuli includes ornate parts for trombone, cornett, and violin (Roche 140).

1624—Stefano Bernardi calls for 4 trombones in Sonata ottava a 12 from Il terzo libro de madrigali (Collver 43).

1624—Brescia, Italy: Pietro Lappi calls for trombone in the ripieno of his Messa secondo libro (Collver 129).

c. 1625—In Padua, Italy, Leandro Gallerano, maestro at the Basilica del Santo, uses 2 violins and a trombone as obbligato instruments in a hymn setting in honor of St. Anthony (Roche 22).

1625—Venice, Italy: Giovanni Picchi calls for trombone frequently in his collection of sonatas and canzoni titled Canzoni da sonar don ogni sorte d’Instrumenti. Specifically, Canzon Decima is scored for 2 flutes and 2 trombones, Canzon Undecima is scored for 2 cornetts and 2 trombones, Canzon Decima Quarta is scored for 2 violins or cornetts and 4 trombones, and Sonata Decima Sesta is scored for 2 violins, 2 flutes, trombone, and bassoon (Winkler 301; Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation; Picchi, Canzoni da sonar). For other works from this collection, see also Trombone and Violin(s).

1625—In Italy, Francesca Caccini’s ballet-opera La liberazione di Ruggiero, is performed to honor a visiting Polish prince (Guion Short History). Caccini uses 4 trombones, 4 viols, a positive organ, and keyboard instruments to depict an infernal scene (Weaver).

1626—In Leipzig, Germany, Johann Hermann Schein, director of music at the Thomaskirche, publishes the collection Opella nova, ander Theil, geistlicher Concerten. The collection features numerous chamber motets in 4 or 5 parts that include trombone: “O Maria, gebenedeiet bist du” (“trombone o fagotto”), “Siehe, das ist mein Knecht” (“fagot o trombone”), “Also heilig ist der Tag” (1 trombone), “Uns ist ein Kind geboren” (1 trombone), “Selig sind, die da geistlich arm sind” (3 trombones), “Vater unser, der du bist im Himmel” (2 trombones), “Mach dich auf, werde Licht,” (3 trombones), and Nun ist das Heil und die Kraft (3 trombones) (Hadden 128; Collver 163). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list).

1626—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Hermann Schein, Ich will schweigen, a funeral lament. Trombone is not specified but is historically very plausible as a replacement for a vocal part.

1626—Bologna, Italy: Camillo Cortellini’s collection of concerted masses, Messe concertante a otto voce, includes specific instructions on how instruments are to be used: “The Mass In Domino confido has the concerted Gloria, and where the text is in capital letters, the singer will sing the solo, and where the text is replaced by lines, the trombones or other similar instruments will play soli for the accompaniment of the parts. This can be done without organ if instruments are present…” (Guion, Missing Link).

1629—Nuremberg, Germany: Numerous works from Biagio Marini’s instrumental collection, Sonate, sinfonie, canzoni, passemezzi…, specify trombone: Sinfonia terza (2 cornetts, trombone, basso continuo), Sinfonia quarta (2 cornetts, trombone, basso continuo), Canzone quarta a 4 (2 violins or cornetts, 2 trombones ad lib, basso continuo), Canzone sesta a 4 (2 cornetts, 2 trombones ad lib, basso continuo), Canzon septima (2 cornetts, basso ad lib, 3 trombones), Canzon nona (2 violins, viola, 3 trombones), and Sonata per l’Organo (violin or cornett, trombone ad lib, organ) (Collver 60; Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation; Winkler 301). For additional works from the collection see the following categories, above: “Trombone Quartets,” and “Trombone(s) and Violin.”

1629—Heinrich Schütz’s collection of works, Symphoniae Sacrae, utilizes trombone extensively, drawing on both the German church tower tradition and Italian polychoral methods. “Veni, dilecte mi” calls for 3 solo voices accompanied by 3 trombones (Beulow 274; Whitwell Catalog Baroque 144).

1629—In Bergamo, Italy, Alessandro Grandi’s O beate Benedicte from the Motetti con sinfonie III is scored for soprano voice, tenor voice, trombone, and violin (Roche 86).

1629—Brescia, Italy: Pietro Lappi specifies trombone or cornett or violin in his 8-voice Canzon L’Anconitana (Winkler 301).

1629—Venice, Italy: Carlo Milanuzzi’s Missa primi toni from his Messe a tre voce contrasts a group of 3 vocal soloists with a 4-part vocal choir and another choir of 2 violins and 2 trombones. The trombone lines are independent of the vocal lines (Schnoebelen, The Role of the Violin).

1629—Pallanza, Italy: Gasparo Pietragrua calls for trombone in a collection of sonatas and canzoni. Specifially, Canzone La Nozente is a 2-part work scored for violin and violone or cornett and trombone (Winkler 302; Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation).

1630—In Venice, Alessandro Grandi’s collection of large-scale church works, Raccolta terza, is published posthumously. It contains numerous works that use trombones prominently. For example, Sinfonia avanti il Gloria is written for cornetto, trombone, and continuo (Collver 118). Nisi Dominus is scored for SATT soloists, SATB ripieno, and 3 trombones. The trombones play in both tuttis and solos (Roche 127). In Messa concertata, trombones are featured among several different solo groupings (Roche 143).

1630—Venice, Italy: Giovanni Croce’s Laudate pueri, which would have been written before his death in 1609, is published posthumously. The work features three 4-part choirs, at least one of which includes trombones (Kurtzman Monteverdi Vespers, 124).

1631—Venice, Italy: Monteverdi’s “Mass of Thanksgiving,” a solemn mass for the feast of S. Maria della Salute in thanksgiving for the delivery of Venice from the plague, includes trombones (Mansfield, Some Anomalies).

1634—Italy: A collection of Masses by Chinelli is scored for voices and trombones (Whitwell, Baroque 213).

1635—England: The verse anthem “When the mountains were brought forth” by William Lawes is described in the Chapel Royal Anthem Book as “An Anthem with verses for Cornetts and Sagbutts” (Morehen 141; Woodfill 191).

1636—Giovanni Battista Buonamente uses trombones prominently in his collection, Sonate et canzoni a due, tre, quattro, cinque et a sei voci. Highlights include Canzon a 5 for 2 cornetts or violins, 3 trombones, and continuo; Sonata a 5 for violin, cornett, 3 trombones, and continuo; Sonata a 6 for violin, cornett, 3 trombones, theorbo, and continuo; and Sonata a 6 for 2 cornetts or violins, 4 trombones, and continuo (Collver 46). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list).

1637—In Leipzig, Germany, Tobias Michael, director of music at the Thomaskirche, publishes Musicalischer Seelen-Lust ander Theil. A collection of works for voice and a variety of instruments, it contains numerous works that include trombone: “Wo der Herr nicht das Haus bauet” (2 trombones), “Wie lieblich sind auff den Bergen” (“trombone grosso”), “Gott schweige doch nicht also” (single trombone) (Hadden 130).

1637—Italy: Francesco Fiamengo scores for 2 violins, viola, and trombone (or tiorba) in his Sonata Pastorale (Winkler 302).

1637—Asolo, Italy: J. Ganassi calls for trombone in a collection of canzoni (Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation). Specifically, he scores for violin and trombone in Canzon Prima, Canzon Seconda, and Canzon Terza (Winkler 302).

c. 1640—Poland: Marcin Mielczewski’s Missa Cerviensiana calls for alto trombone, 2 tenor trombones, and bass trombone (Przybyszewska-Jarminska, Baroque part I, 543).

c. 1640—Poland: Marcin Mielczewski’s Missa Sancta Anna calls for alto trombone and 2 tenor trombones (Przybyszewska-Jarminska, Baroque part I, 543).

c. 1640—Poland: Marcin Mielczewski’s Missa triumphalis calls for alto trombone, 2 tenor trombones, and bass trombone (Przybyszewska-Jarminska, Baroque part I, 543).

c. 1640—Poland: Marcin Mielczewski’s Vesperae Dominicales II calls for alto trombone as a substitute for alto voice, tenor trombone as a substitute for tenor voice, and bass trombone as a substitute for bass voice in 2 of 4 choirs (Przybyszewska-Jarminska, Baroque part I, 544).

c. 1640—England: Henry Loosemore (d. 1670) writes A Verse for y Organ A Sagbot Cornute & Violin (Collver 59).

1640—Italy: Sinfonia La Barbisona by Gregorius Urbanus is scored for 2 cornetts and trombone (Winkler 303).

1640—Italy: Gregorio Urbano writes Sacri armonici, which includes a work for trombone, 2 cornetts, and organ (Collver 70).

1640—Claudio Monteverdi, Dixit Dominus.

1641—Johann Vierdanck (c.1605-1646) calls for trombone in several works contained in the collection Erster Theil newer Pavanen, Gagliarden, Balletten und Correnten, including two different sonatas for cornetto and 3 trombones (No. 27 and No. 28) (Collver 72).

1641—Italy: Monteverdi’s “Gloria” that appears in his Selva morale specifies an instrumental ensemble of 4 viole da brazzo or 4 trombones, and 2 violins (Schnoebelen, The Role of the Violin).

1641—In Italy, Monteverdi’s setting of “Beatus vir” (Psalm 111) requires 3 viole da brazzo or trombones (Tim Carter 232). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list).

1642—Brussels, Belgium: Nicolaus a Kempis writes Symphonia 2. XXI for 3 strings and trombone, Symphonia XXII for 4 strings and trombone, and Symphonia XXIII for 4 strings and 2 trombones (Winkler 303).

1643—Johann Erasmus Kindermann publishes a collection that includes Symphonia in D-flat, Sonata, Sonata in D, Symphonia in D, Symphonia in F, and Rittornello in G, all for trombone, 2 cornetts, and basso continuo. Also included are Symphonia in E for 3 trombones, Intrada in C for 2 trombones and 3 cornetts, and Symphonia for 3 trombones and 2 cornetts (Whitwell Catalog Baroque 132).

1643—Hamburg, Germany: Kantor Thomas Selle composes a St. John Passion that features prominent use of trombone (Buelow, Protestant 191).

1644—Paul Schäffer calls for 2 trombones in his Jauchzet dem Herrn alle Welt (Collver 162).

1646—Andreas Hammerschmidt (c. 1611-1675) publishes the collection Vierdter Theil, which calls for trombone extensively. For example, Wer waltzet uns den Stein, Herr höre und sey mir gnädig, Laudate servi Domini, Verleih uns Friede genädiglich, and Alleluia lobet den Herren in seinem Heiligthumb all call for 3 trombones (Collver 119).

1647—Antwerp, Belgium: Nicolaus a Kempis scores specifically for trombone in 3 works: Symphonia 1 for cornett, violin, and trombone, Symphonie 1 for trombone and 3 strings, and Symphonie 2 for trombone and 3 strings (Winkler 303).

1648—Stephan Otto writes the collection Kronen Krönlein, several pieces of which call for trombones (Collver 142).

1648—Bergamo, Italy: Cazzati calls for trombone in a collection of sonatas and canzoni (Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation).

1648—Johann Rosenmüller scores for soprano voice, 2 violas or trombones, violone or trombone, and basso continuo in Lieber Herre Gott (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1648—Johann Rosenmüller scores for alto voices, 3 violas or trombones, violone or trombone, and basso continuo in O admirabile commercium (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1649—In Nuremberg, Germany, Johann Andreas Herbst writes the cantata Danket dem Herrn, den er ist freundlich, which calls for 3 choirs: a choir of solo voices, a choir of violins, and a choir of trombones (Samuel 77). The same year, Herbst also writes Danck- und Lobgesang, which uses 4 trombones (Collver 122).

1649—Milan, Italy: Biagio Marini calls for trombone in a collection of his works (Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation).

1649—Emperor Ferdinand III composes Hymnus de Nativitate, a work for chorus and instruments that includes 2 trombones (Whitwell, Catalog Baroque 3).

1649—Antwerp, Belgium: Nicolaus a Kempis writes several symphonias in which he scores specifically for trombone, including Symphonia 2. XIX for horn, violin, and trombone; Symphonia XXII for 2 violins, tenore viola or trombone, and basso viola; Symphonia 2. XXIII for 2 violins, tenore viola or trombone, and bass viola (Winkler 304).

1649—Vienna, Austria: Marco Antonio Ferro, lutenist at the court of Emperor Ferdinand III in Vienna, publishes his Sonata a due, tre, e quatro in Venice. The work, comprising 12 ensemble sonatas for strings, specifies alternative scorings, 3 of which include trombone: Sonata 5 for violin, tenore da gamba, viola da gamba or cornetto, trombone, and tiorba; Sonata 8 for 2 violins, violetta da braccio, viola da gamba or 2 cornetti, trombone, and fagotto; Sonata 11 for 2 violins, violetta da braccio, viola da gamba or 2 cornetti, trombone, and bassoon (Winkler 303; Apel, Italian Violin Music 147; Collver 49).

c. 1650—Poland: Bartlomiej Pekiel’s Missa Concertata La Lombardesca calls for an instrumental accompaniment of 2 violins and 3 trombones (labeled alto, tenore, and grosso) (Przybyszewska-Jarminska, Baroque part I, 261).

c. 1650—Antonio Bertali, Missa Redemptoris:

1650—Nuremberg, Germany: Johann Andreas Herbst writes the cantata, Wenn wir in Höchsten Nöten sein, which calls for 4 trombones in one of 3 choirs (Samuel 93).

1651—Frankfurt, Germany: Johann Andreas Herbst writes Domine Dominus noster, which calls for 3 trombones (Collver 123).

1651—Venice, Italy: Italian composer and organist Massimiliano Neri issues a collection of sonatas, Sonate da sonarsi con varii stromenti, scored for diverse combinations of instruments, including trombones. Regarding instrumentation, the collection’s preface mentions that performers may adapt instrumentation “to their taste.” Many of the sonatas may have been intended for the wedding of the Habsburg emperor Ferdinand III (Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation). Sonata 8 is scored for 2 cornetts, bassoon, and 3 trombones; Sonata 11 is scored for 2 violins, viola, 2 cornetts, bassoon, and 3 trombones; Sonata 12 is scored for 5 violins and 5 trombones; and Sonata 14 is scored for 2 cornetts, bassoon, 3 trombones, 2 violins, viola, and tiorba or viola (Collver 63; Winkler 304).

1652—Zittau, Germany: Andreas Hammerschmidt calls for 3 trombones in Lob- und Dank Lied aus dem 84 Psalm (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1654—Jindrichuv Hradec, Moravia (modern Czech Republic): Organist and composer Adam Václav Michna writes Missa pro defunctis, a Requiem Mass in which 3 trombones double vocal lines (Chase 127).

1654—Wolfenbüttel, Germany: A masque called Der Natur Ballet, by Sophie Elisabeth, is performed. It portrays the character of each of the 7 planets, using trombones and cornetts on the Jupiter portion (Spagnoli 46).

1655—Venice, Italy: Biagio Marini’s Sonata Quarta a 4 from the collection Per ogni sorte di strumento musicale calls for 2 violins, viola or trombone, and basso (Winkler 304).

1656—Venice, Italy: Francesco Cavalli Musiche Sacre, a collection of 28 pieces, includes three optional trombone parts printed into the alto, tenor, and bass parts of the second choir (Glover 125).

1656—Venice, Italy: Francesco Cavalli scores for trombone and strings in 2 sonatas and 2 canzonas (Winkler 304).

1657—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for SATB, cornetto or violin, 2 violas or trombones, a violone or trombone, and basso continuo in his Magnificat (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1657—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for SATB, 2 violins, 3 trombones or violas, trombone or violone, and basso continuo in his Missa a 10 (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1658—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for soprano, alto, and tenor voice; 3 flutes or violins; flute or trombone or violone; and basso continuo in Seht euch für den falschen Propheten (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1658—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, trombone or bassoon or viola, trombone or bassoon, 2 bassoons, and basso continuo in Fürchtet euch nicht (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1658—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, 2 violins, 2 violas or trombones, 2 flutes, 2 trombones, and basso continuo in Meine Seele erhebet den Herren (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1658—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for SATB, 2 violins, 3 trombones, and basso continuo in Erschienen ist der herrliche Tag (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1658—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, 3 trombones or violas, “trombone majore,” and basso continuo in his Magnificat (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1658—Christian Sartorius calls for 2 trombones the “Alleluja” of his Unterschiedlicher Teutscher (Collver 162).

1658—Briegel scores for voices, 2 cornetti, 4 trombones, and basso continuo in his Nun lob mein Seel (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1659—Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, Sonata a 3 for 2 violins, trombone or viola da gamba, and continuo.

c. 1660—Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, Sonata a 3 for violin, trombone, bassoon, and continuo (Brewer, Instrumental 29).

1660—Jacob Melani utilizes 3 cornetts and a trombone in his opera, Ercole in Tebe (Weaver, Sixteenth-Century Instrumentation).

1662—Vienna, Austria: Leopold I writes Domine Jesu Christe, which calls for 2 trombones (Collver 132).

1662—Zittau, Germany: Andreas Hammerschmidt scores for soprano voice, 2 trombette, 4 trombones, violone, and basso continuo in Nun lob mein Seel (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1662—Zittau, Germany: Andreas Hammerschmidt scores for alto voice, 2 clarinos, 4 trombones, violone, and basso continuo in Herr hadre and Gelobet systu Jesu Christi (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1662— Zittau, Germany: Andreas Hammerschmidt scores for voices, 2 violins, 3 trombones, and basso continuo in his Missa XIII (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1662—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Bertali’s (1605-1669) Sonata S. Leopoldi a 14 calls for 4 trombones (Collver 44).

1663— Zittau, Germany: Andreas Hammerschmidt scores for voices, 2 violins, 4 trombones, and basso continuo in his Missa XVI (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1663—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, 2 violins, 2 trombette, 2 cornetti, 2 trombones, 2 flauti, and basso continuo in Sie ist fest gegründet (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1664—Heinrich Schütz writes his Weihnachtshistorie (Christmas History), which includes a pair of trombones acting as obbligato instruments and specifically representing high priests (Smallman 151).

1664—Bernhard’s multichoral Benedic anima mea calls for 4 trombones (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1664-1687—Mülhausen, Germany: Johann Rudolf Ahle’s Salamonisches Liebes Gespräch Komm meine Braut von Libanon calls for 5 trombones (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

c. 1665—In Germany, Matthias Weckmann writes a set of 10 instrumental sonatas for the Hamburg Collegium Musicum. All but one of the sonatas designate trombone. All but two of the sonatas are scored for four instruments and continuo. The most common combination in the set is cornettino, violin, trombone, bassoon, and continuo. Alternates are given for many of the parts (Collver 73). Septenary publishes a good edition.

1665—Johann Rudolph Ahle’s sacred work, Höre, Gott mein Geschrey, calls for 5 tenor trombones and 2 bass trombones (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1665—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, 2 violins, 4 trombones, and basso continuo in Zwingt die Saiten in Cithara (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1665—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, 2 violins, 4 trombones, and basso continuo in Wie bin ich doch so herzlich froh (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1665—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, 2 trombette, 3 trombones, and basso continuo in his Benedicamus (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1665—Johann Rudolph Ahle calls for 4 trombones in his Gloria in excelsis Deo (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1665—Johann Rudolph Ahle’s chorale concerto, Zwingt der Saiten in Cithara, calls for 3 voices, 2 violins, and 4 trombones (Buelow History 228).

1665—In Vienna, Antonio Bertali’s Sonata Sublationis is copied. The work is written for 2 trumpets, 2 trumpets ad lib, 2 violins, 3 viols or trombones (notated respectively in alto, tenor, and bass clefs), and continuo (Bertali, Sonata Sublationis).

1666—Cesti employs 3 trombones, 2 cornetts, a bassoon, and a regal in the opera Il Pomo d’oro(Weaver, Sixteenth-Century Instrumentation).

1667—Martin Schneider writes Erster Theil. The collection contains several works for the following instrumentation: soprano voice, alto trombone, tenor trombone, 2 trumpets (or cornettinos or violins), violone or trombone, and continuo (Collver 166).

1667—Vienna, Austria: Cesti’s Pomo d’oro calls for calls for trombone, particularly in Act I, Scene I, set in the underworld. The instrumentation in the scene is 2 trombones, 2 cornetts, and a continuo of trombone, bassoon, and regal organ (Rose, Agazzari and the Improvising Orchestra).

1668—Heinrich Biber writes Intrada for 6 trumpets, 3 trombones, and timpani (Whitwell Catalog Baroque 2).

1668—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux writes Missa S. Ignatij and Missa Augusta, both of which call for 4 trombones (Collver 116).

1668—Marc’ Antonio Cesti uses trombones in Il pomo d’oro, an extensive, 8-hour opera performed for the birthday of Margherita of Spain, wife of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I (Guion, Short History).

1668—Modena, Italy: Marco Uccellini calls for trombone in a collection of his works (Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation).

1668—Venice, Italy: Pietro Andrea Ziani’s Sonata XX is scored for 2 violins, alto or tenor viola, and 2 trombones or 2 violas (Winkler 304).

1669—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Pezel writes a now-lost collection, Decas Sonatarum, of 6-part pieces for 4 trombones and 2 cornetts (Collver 188; Whitwell, Baroque 158).

1669—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Pezel writes Missa a 10 & 15, which call for 3 trombones (Collver 146).

1669—In Vienna, Antonio Bertali (1605-1669) writes Missa Resurrectionis, which calls for 5 trombones, Missa Archiducalis, which calls for 4 trombones, and Sonata a 13, which calls for 3 trombones (Collver 44, 90).

1669—Vienna, Austria: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, Sonata a 4 “La Carioletta” for cornett, violin, trombone, and bassoon (Collver 68; Brewer, Instrumental 8).

1670—An anonymous sonata, titled Sonata per la camera e chiesa, calls for 2 violins, 2 cornetts, 3 trombones or violas, and organ (Collver 40).

1671—Vienna, Austria: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (1623-1680) calls for 2 trombones in his Missa tarde venientium (Collver 165).

1671—Trombone is called for in Paul Konwalynka’s Musicalische Neu-Jahrs Beehrung (Collver 128).

1672—Knüpfer calls for 4 trombones in Quare fremuerent gentes (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1672—Christian Ritter calls for 3 trombones in his Gelobet sey der Name des Herren (Collver 156).

1673—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber calls for 3 trombones (the only winds in the piece) in his Lux Perpetua (Chafe 87, 237).

1673—Vienna, Austria: Leopold I, second son of Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, composes Missa pro defunctis, probably for the death of his first wife. The piece calls for 2 trombones (Chase 120).

1674—Becker scores for voices, 2 violins or trombette, 2 trombones or violas, trombone or bassoon or violone, and basso continuo in Das Blut Jesu Christi (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1674—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber’s polychoral mass, Missa Christi Resurgentis, calls for 3 trombones (Chafe 84, 234).

1674—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber’s Vesperae a 32 calls for 3 trombones (Chafe 119).

1674—Vienna, Austria: Wolfgang Ebner composes Missa Contrapuncto for choir, cornett, violone, 3 trombones, and organ (Collver 103; Whitwell, Catalog Baroque 2).

1674—Johann Heinrich Schmelzer’s “Balletto di Centauri, Ninfe et Salvatici,” for 3 choirs, includes a choir of “2 Cornetti muti et 3 Tromboni” (Holman Violin 251).

1674—Composer Martin Mayer writes a vocal work called Hosianna dem Sohne David, which calls for 3 trombones (Collver 136).

c. 1675—Poland: Stanislaw Sylwester Szarzynski’s Gloria in excelsis Deo calls for an instrumental accompaniment of 2 violins and 3 trombones (labeled Trombone Alto, Trombone Tenore, and Trombone Basso e Viola) (Przybyszewska-Jarminska, Baroque part I, 322).

c. 1675—Vienna, Austria: Johann Kaspar Kerll’s Missa a 3 cori, written for a performance at St. Stephen’s cathedral, includes a “Crucifixus” scored for 3 solo bass voices and trombones (Chafe 50).

c. 1675—Johann Rosenmüller calls for 5 trombones in his Als der Tag der Pfingsten erfüllet war (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

c. 1675—Johann Rosenmüller calls for 5 trombones in his Nun gibst du, Gott, einen gnädigen Regen (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1675—Breslau, Poland: Martin Meuer’s Jubilate a 37 o 44, performed at the church of St. Mary Magdalen for an anniversary service, calls for 4 trombones in one of the 5 choirs (Chafe 50).

1675—Lübeck, Germany: Dietrich Buxtehude composes Sinfonia, in Ihr lieben Christen, freat euch nun, for 3 trombones and 3 cornetts (Whitwell, Catalog Baroque 122).

1675—Johann Heinrich Schmelzer’s “Sonata natalitia,” for 3 choirs, includes a choir of “2 Cornetti muti et 3 Tromboni” (Holman Violin 251).

1675—Venice, Italy: Francesco Cavalli, maestro di cappella at St. Mark’s, sensing that his life is drawing to a close, composes his Missa pro defunctic per octo vocibus for his own funeral. He leaves specific instructions that the instruments should consist of 2 violins, 4 violas, 2 cornets, 2 theoroboes, trombones, bassoon, bass viol, and 3 organs. The work is performed at his funeral a year later (Chase 106).

1676—Vienna, Austria: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (1623-1680) calls for 4 trombones in his Ad concentus o mortals ad triumphos (Collver 165).

1676—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Pezel composes music for a now-lost collection, Intraden, which consists of works for cornett and 3 trombones (Collver 188; Whitwell, Baroque 158).

1676—Vienna, Austria: Leopold I writes Parce mihi and Tres Lectiones I, both of which call for 2 trombones (Collver 132, 134).

1676—Composer Martin Mayer writes several vocal works that call for 3 trombones: Es wird dass Scepter von Juda, Schmecket und sehet wie freundlich, Heylig ist der Herre Zebaoth, Kommet her zu mir alle, and Ich wil mich mit dir verloben (Collver 136).

1677—Johann Rosenmüller writes Entsetze dich, Natur, which calls for an instrumental accompaniment of 2 violins, 2 cornettos, 3 trombones, and continuo (Collver 158).

1677—Vienna, Austria: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (1623-1680) includes 3 trombones in his Missa Mater purissima (Collver 165).

1677—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Bertali (1605-1669) writes Missa Redemptoris, which calls for 5 trombones (Collver 90).

1677—Composer Martin Mayer writes Gott ist unser Zuversicht und stärcke; Freude! Jesus ist erstanden; and Ihr Lieben, gläubet nicht einem ieglichen Geiste, all ofwhich call for 3 trombones (Collver 136).

1677—Leipzig, Germany: Sebastian Knüpfer’s Der Herr ist König calls for 7 trombones, 5 tenors and 2 basses (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone).

1678—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for soprano voices, 2 trombette, 3 trombones, and basso continuo in his Freudenlied (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1678—Vienna, Austria: Leopold I writes Stabat Mater, which calls for 2 trombones (Collver 132).

1679—Vienna, Austria: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (1623-1680) calls for 3 trombones in his Missa peregrina in honorem S. Rochi (Collver 165).

1679—Italy: Stefano Pasino scores for 2 trombones and 2 cornetts in his 4-part Sonata duodecima detta la Savolda (Winkler 304; Collver 63).

1680—Italy: Giovanni Freschi composes the opera Berenice, which calls for 6 trombones (Whitwell, Baroque 68).

1681—Rupert Ignaz Mayr writes “Beati Omnes” (from Sacri Concentus) for alto (or high tenor) voice, trombone (or viola), and continuo (Mayr).

1681—Genoa, Italy: Alessandro Stradella composes Inventione per un barcheggio for the wedding celebrations of Signori Carlo Spinola and Paula Brignole, members of two noble families. In the work, trombone is specified as part of the continuo. Precise instructions include the following: “All the basses with one trombone, but the trombone must play very staccato and with little breath.” The performance, as described by a chronicler of the time, takes place on the water: “Towards the evening on Thursday the ladies and gentlemen of this city had a sumptuous diversion on the bay, having been taken round the harbour by four galleys, besides a very great number of smaller boats, and then conducted aboard an apparatus [made] of barges, [which] formed a hall covered by light-weight silk and richly adorned. Here they were entertained with an interweaving of harmonious voices, poetry and instrumental music accompanied by the most exquisite food and refreshments of all sorts…” (Gianturco).

1682—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber (1644-1704) calls for 4 trombones in his Missa (“Salisburgenis”), including a “Crusifixus” scored for 4 bass voices and trombones (Collver 91; Chafe 50).

1683—Johann Rosenmüller writes Gloria in excelsis Deo, which calls for 4 trombones (Collver 157).

1684—Johann Krieger calls for 3 trombones in the “Zu ende des Kirchen-Jahrs” of his Newe Musikalische Ergetzligkeit (Collver 128).

1684—Benedetto Sarti calls for 3 trombones in his Domine adjuvandum (Collver 162).

1684—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Draghi calls for 4 trombones in his Missa Assumptionis (Collver 103).

c. 1685—Vienna, Austria: It is probably in Salzburg circa 1685 that Georg Muffat composes his Missa in labore requies, which calls for two separate groups of 3 trombones. The mass is preceded by a sonata that calls for 3 trombones (Collver 141; Brewer, Instrumental Music 285).

1685—Germany: Daniel Speer, a former Stadtpfeifer, writes Recens fabricatus labor, oder neugebachene Taffel-Schnitz, which includes 7 sonatas for wind ensemble (including trombone). In addition to the works for 4 trombones (listed above) and trombone-cornetto quintet (listed above), the following sonatas specify trombone: Aufzug a 6 (2 different works that call for 6 trumpets or cornetts, trombone), Sonata a 4 (trumpet or cornett, 3 trombones, continuo), and Sonata a 4 (cornett, 3 trombones, continuo)  (Collver 68; Whitwell, Baroque 160; Speer Sonata).

1685—Johann Philipp Krieger calls for 3 trombones in the “Preise, Jerusalem” of his Cantate Domine (Collver 129).

1685—Krüger’s Psalmodia Sacra calls for trombone extensively (Galpin, The Sackbut).

1686—J.P. Krieger scores for soprano voices, violin, and viola da gamba or trombone in Ich bin eine Blume zu Saron (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1687—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber writes Requiem a 15 in Concerto, probably for the funeral of Archbishop Maximillian von Khuenberg. The piece utilizes 3 trombones that double vocal parts (Chase 103).

c. 1690—Schulze calls for trombone (or bassoon or violone) in his Historia Resurrectionis Domini nostri (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

c. 1690—Knüpfer calls for 4 trombones in Komm heilger Geist (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1690—Johann Rosenmüller calls for 4 trombones in Siehe eine Jungfrau ist (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1690—Salzburg, Austria: After this date, Heinrich Biber calls for 3 trombones in his Offertorium, Ne Cedite (Chafe 238).

1690—Salzburg, Austria: After this date, Heinrich Biber utilizes 3 trombones in an independent style (as opposed to colla parte) in his Requiem a 15 (Chafe 109).

1691—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Draghi calls for 2 cornetts, 3 trombones, and bassoon in the “Sinfonia con stromenti da fiato” of his  Festspiel “Il Pelegrinaggio delle Gratie,” “am 22. April 1691 zum Namensfest der regierenden Kaiserin Eleonora Magdalena Theresa aufgefuert” (Collver 103).

1693—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber’s Vesperae longiores ac beviores unacum litanies Lauretanis calls for 3 trombones and a cornett to double the 4-part chorus (Buelow, History 232; Collver 91).

1694—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Draghi’s aria, “Si spezza il suolo” from Il libro con sette sigilli, features a trombone obbligato and is scored for bass voice, alto trombone, and bassoon (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1696—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber utilizes 3 trombones, colla parte, in his Missa S. Henrici (Chafe 95, 234).

1696—Leipzig, Germany: Gottfried Reiche, a Stadtpfeifer player of trumpet, horn, and cornett, writes Vier und Zwanzig neue Quatricinia, a set of 24 quartets for cornett and 3 trombones. All of the individual pieces are labeled either sonatina or fuga. Some alternate instrumentation, like trumpet for cornett, is indicated (Collver 65; Guion Trombone 156).

1697—Ulm, Germany: Daniel Speer writes Grundrichtiger, kurtzleicht und nöthiger Unterricht, which includes 6 pieces for trombone and 2 cornetts (Collver 69).

1699—Andreas Hofer (1629-1684) calls for 3 trombones in his Missa Archiepiscopalis (Collver 123).

c. 1700—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber’s Litania de S. Josepho a 20 calls for 3 trombones (Chafe 179).

1700—Knüpfer scores for voices, 2 violins or cornettini, viola da gamba or bambardo or trombone, and organ in O benignissime Jesu (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1701—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber uses trombones to double voices in his Missa St. Henrici (Cameron 81).

1704—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux’s Te Deum, K 271, calls for 2 trombones.

1705—Lübeck, Germany: Buxtehude calls for muted trombone in his Castrum doloris: “trombones and trumpets with mutes, and all other instruments similarly muted” (Schulze, Johann Sebastian Bach’s Orchestra).

vc. 1710—Stuttgart, Germany: Johann Georg Christian Störl writes 6 sonatas for cornett and 3 trombones (Collver 70).

1710—Italy: Francesco Magini writes 2 sonatas for the combination of 4 trombones and 2 cornetts (Collver 59).

1713—Francesco Magini publishes a collection of sonatas titled Sonate di Francesco Magini per il Campidoglio 1713. It includes 7 different sonatas scored for 4 trombones (alto, tenor, tenor, bass) and 2 cornetts (Collver 59).

1714—Weimar, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 21 utilizes trombones to double vocal lines (Terry 195).

1715—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux calls for 3 trombones in his Orfeo ed Euridice (Spitzer Table 1.1).

c. 1716—Johann Joseph Fux calls for trombone, violin, cornetto, and bassoon in his Sonata a 4, K. 347 (Collver 50).

1717—Sorau, Poland: Georg Philipp Telemann calls for 3 trombones in his vocal work (TB), Erhöre mich, wenn ich rufe (Collver 178).

1719—Sorau, Poland: Georg Philipp Telemann calls for 3 trombones in his vocal work (STB), Jesu, wirst du bald erscheinen (Collver 178).

c. 1720—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara uses trombones to double strings in his Mass for 4 Voices (Cameron 84).

1720—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux, Kapellmeister at the Imperial Court, writes the Emperor’s Requiem for the funeral of the widow of Emperor Leopold I. The work, which reportedly continues to be used at royal funeral services up until 1743, utilizes 2 trombones to double the lower vocal lines and for an obbligato role in the “Tuba Mirum.” The obligato use of trombone in the “Tuba Mirum,” of course, foreshadows Mozart’s Requiem (Chase 153). (The “Tuba Mirum” in the YouTube clip below begins at :43.)

1721—Hamburg, Germany: Telemann calls for 3 trombones in his vocal work (SATB), Sehet an die Exempel der Alten (Collver 178).

1723—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 64 utilizes trombones to double vocal lines (Terry 195).

1723—Dresden, Germany: Bohemian musician Jan Dismas Zelenka, composer at the Dresden court, writes Responsoria pro hebdomada sancta, which includes colla parte trombones. An autograph remark at the head of the score indicates, “Tutte le Viole e Tromboni,” while colla parte instructions elsewhere include “[Alto clef] Alto Viola e Alto Trombone; [Tenor clef] Tenore Viola e Tenore Trombone; [Bass clef] Violoncello, Violone, Fagotto e Bass Trombone” (Stockigt, 117).

1724—Leipzig, Germany: Bach’s Cantata No. 4 utilizes trombones to double vocal lines (Terry 195).

1724—Leipzig, Germany: Bach’s Cantata No. 23 utilizes trombones to double vocal lines (Terry 195).

c. 1730—Salzburg, Austria: Carl Heinrich Biber writes Lytaniae de Venerabili Sacramento, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

c. 1730—Georg Philipp Telemann writes Sinfonia [F major]an instrumental work for 3 trombones, cornett, flute, oboe, viola da gamba, violin, 2 violas, violone, and continuo (Collver 70).

c. 1731—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 25 utilizes trombones in an independent, non-doubling manner: 3 trombones and a cornett play an independent chorale (Terry 41).

1731—Carl Heinrich’s mass, Missa brevis sanctorum septum dolorum, calls for 3 trombones that double voices (Guion, Trombone 137).

1731—Salzburg, Austria: Carl Heinrich Biber writes Litaniae de Venerabili a 2 Chori, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

1733—Salzburg, Austria: Carl Heinrich Biber writes Litaniae de Venerabili  Sacramento, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

1734—Salzburg, Austria: Matthias Biechteler (c. 1668-1743) composes Lytaniae de venerabili sacramento a 4 voci con stromti, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

1735—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 68 utilizes trombones to double choral parts (Terry 195).

1735—Salzburg, Austria: Carl Heinrich Biber writes Litaniae de Venerabili Sacramento, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

1736—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 28utilizes trombones to double choral parts (Terry 195).

1738—Handel uses trombones in 2 oratorios, Saul (in 4 choruses and 4 instrumental movements) and Israel in Egypt (in 10 choruses). Anthony Baines later calls the trombone parts in Saul the finest in the 18th century (Guion Trombone 144).

1738—Salzburg, Austria: Carl Heinrich Biber writes Litaniae de Venerabili Sacramento, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

c. 1740—Vienna, Austria: Wagenseil composes his Missa Transfige cor meum, which contains the unusual accompaniment of 2 violas or trombones and continuo (Mac Intyre 92).

c. 1740—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 2 utilizes trombones to double vocal lines (Terry 195).

c. 1740—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 3 utilizes trombones to double vocal lines (Terry 195).

c. 1740—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 38 utilizes trombones to double vocal lines (Terry 195).

c. 1740—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 96 utilizes trombones to double vocal lines (Terry 195).

c. 1740—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 101 utilizes trombones to double vocal lines (Terry 195).

c. 1740—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 121 utilizes trombones to double vocal lines (Terry 195).

c. 1740—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 135 utilizes trombone in an independent, non-doubling manner: a single trombone is called upon to play continuo lines (Terry 41).

c. 1740—Dresden, Germany: Bohemian composer Jan Dismas Zelenka, an important contemporary of Bach and Handel, composes his Requiem in C Minor. The piece utilizes 3 trombones, which perform in every movement, often doubling the lower vocal lines (Chase 181). Trombones, which are the only brass in the work, play a particularly prominent role in the “Dies Irae.”

1740—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 118 (O Jesu Christ, mein’s Lebens Licht), written for the funeral of Joachim Friedrich von Fleming, governor of the city of Leipzig, requires trombones. The specific instrumentation is 2 litui, 1 cornett, and 3 trombones. Trombones are treated independently and do not double the vocal parts (Guion, Trombone 201).

1741—Salzburg, Austria: Matthias Biechteler (c. 1668-1743) writes Lytaniae de venerabili Sacramento, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

1741—In Vienna, Georg Christoph Wagenseil writes Missa Sancti Antonii, which utilizes 2 trombones as obbligato instruments in the “Et incarnates” and “Agnus Dei” (Mac Intyre 671).o

1743—Vienna, Austria: Georg Christoph Wagenseil uses 2 trombones in an obbligato role in his Missa solenne Immaculatae Conceptionis (Mac Intyre 674).

1744—Salzburg, Austria: Carl Heinrich Biber writes Litaniae de Venerabili Sacramento, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

c. 1745—Vienna, Austria: Ferdinand Schmidt, Kapellmeister at St. Stephens, composes Missa Primitiarum in C. The “Qui tollis” features 2 trombones in a prominent obbligato role (Mac Intyre 262).

c. 1745—Vienna, Austria: Franz Tuma, in his Missa Tibi soli di Psalm 50, writes expressive obbligato lines for the 2 trombones (Mac Intyre 504).

1753—Vienna, Austria: Georg Reutter writes his Requiem in C Minor, which calls for 2 trombones. In addition to doubling vocal lines, trombones play numerous fanfares and obbligatos. The “Tuba Mirum,” features a virtuosic trombone solo that accompanies the solo for alto voice (Chase 171). It is probably the earliest known composition of its kind to designate the “Tuba mirum” be performed by trombones. The title page bears the inscription “con tromboni Soli” (Wigness 30).

1755—Johann Ernst Eberlin composes the oratorio, Der blutschwitzende Jesus, which utilizes trombone in a soloistic manner (Guion Trombone 137).

c. 1755-85—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Friedrich Doles, a former student of J.S. Bach and successor to Bach at Leipzig, writes 27 works that call for all four sizes of trombones (soprano, alto, tenor, bass) (Carter, Trombone Ensembles of the Moravian).

1757—Georg Reutter composes Per mundi castra velox ad astra, in which he calls for 2 trombones (Collver 155).

c. 1758—Austria: Leopold Hofmann alternates strings with trombones and continuo in his Missa in Honorem Sanctae Theresiae in C (Cameron 83).

1759—Georg Reutter composes several works that use trombone, all of which call for 2 trombones: Ergo plebs fidelis, Succure rex coelorum, and Dei nomen magnificate (Collver 155).

1760—Paris, France: François-Joseph Gossec composes Messe des morts, a Requiem Mass first performed at the Jacobean monastery of the rue St. Jacques, and subsequently performed at least a dozen times in Paris before the Revolution.Three trombones, along with several other wind instruments, appear offstage in the “Tuba mirum” (Guion, Trombone 169; Chase 200). Later, Gossec makes the following comment about the piece: “In the two strophes Tuba mirum and Mors stupebit et natura of the Dies irae, people were frightened by the terrible effect of three trombones with four clarinets, four trumpets, four horns, and eight bassoons hidden in the distance and in an elevated place in the church to announce the last judgment” (Guion, Trombone 170).

1761—Georg Reutter composes Quae festiva nobis lucet and Laudate Deum, both of which call for 2 trombones (Collver 155).

1761—Vienna, Austria: Gluck uses trombone (a single alto trombone) prominently in his ballet Don Juan (Guion, Trombone 229).

1762—Georg Reutter composes several works that use 3 trombones: Ad te levavi animam meamDeo sit lausDe manu peccatorum, and Si observaveris iniquitates (Collver 154).

1765—Berlin, Germany: Christian Carl Rolle’s Das Herr Gott dich loben wir calls for 4 trombones (Collver 156).

1767—Vienna, Austria: Gluck writes for the traditional trio of alto, tenor, and bass to evoke associations of ecclesiastical/supernatural in the oracle scene of his opera, Alceste. The overture features relatively independent trombone parts and 3rd act features prominent obbligato for alto trombone.

1768—Mozart’s Missa solemnis: “Waisenhauskirche Mass” uses trombones prominently, including an unaccompanied trombone trio opening to the “Agnus Dei” (Guion, Trombone 139).

c. 1770—Austria: Grassl composes Missa Pastoralis Ex C, which utilizes 2 trombones in an obbligato role (Mac Intyre 70, 609).

1771—Michael Haydn writes his Requiem, probably in honor of his patron, Archbishop Schrattenbach. First performed in the Salzburg Cathedral, it calls for 3 trombones (Chase 203).

1772—Salzburg, Austria: Joseph Hafeneder, court violinist, composes Litany, which calls for 3 trombones (Eisen, Mozart’s Salzburg Orchestras).

1773—Versailles, France: Jean-Joseph Rodolphe composes Isaménor, one of the first French operas to call for trombone (Guion, Trombone 172).

1774—Paris, France: A trombonist by the name of Braun is hired to play Gluck’s opera, Iphigénie en Aulide (Guion, Trombone 173).

1774—Paris, France: Gluck composes the opera Orphée et Euridice, which calls for 3 trombones. They accompany the opening chorus for the funeral of Euridice, as well as playing in the scene that takes place at the gates of hell. The trombonists for the premiere are Braun, Moser, and Sieber (Guion, Trombone 173).

1778—France: Popular Neapolitan composer Niccoló Piccinni writes the opera Roland, which calls for trombones (Guion, Trombone 175).

1779—Paris, France: Gluck composes the opera Iphigénie en Tauride, which calls for trombones. They perform only while the Eumenides chase Orestes and during a funeral ceremony (Guion, Trombone 173).

1779—Paris, France: Gluck composes the opera Echo et Narcisse, which calls for trombones. They are used for a scene in hell and to accompany a chorus of evil spirits (Guion, Trombone 173).

1780—French opera composer André Ernest Modeste Grétry composes Andromaque, which calls for trombones (Guion, Trombone 175).

1780-1801—F. J. Haydn includes trombones in the following 8 works (according to Hoboken’s catalog): “Ad aras convolate” (1780); Il ritorno di Tobia (1784 revision); L’anima del filosofo, ossia Orfeo ed Euridice (1791); Der Sturm (The Storm) (1792); Die sieben letzten Worte unsers Erlösers am Kreuze (The Seven Last Words of Our Savior on the Cross) (1798); Die Schöpfung (The Creation) (1798); Te Deum (1800); Die Jahreszeiten (The Seasons) (1801) (Guion, Trombone 134). In addition, according to Landon, Haydn uses trombones in large choral works as often as possible. However, because there are no regular trombonists at Eisenstadt, Haydn’s works from this period lack the orchestral doublings and obbligatos common in trombone parts of nearby locations during this time period (Mac Intyre 709).

1781—France: Popular Neapolitan composer Niccoló Piccinni writes the opera Iphigénie en Tauride, which calls for trombone(Guion, Trombone 175).

1782—Sweden: Johann Gottlieb Naumann writes an opera, Cora och Alonza, that includes trombone (Guion, Trombone 165).

1783—French opera composer André Ernest Modeste Grétry composes Alexandre aux Indes, which calls for trombones (Guion, Trombone 175).

c. 1785—Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf, colleague and personal friend of both Mozart and Haydn, writes his Requiem in C minor. The work calls for 3 trombones that double the lower vocal parts (Chase 195).

1785—France: popular Neapolitan composer Niccoló Piccinni writes the opera Pénélope, which calls for trombones (Guion, Trombone 175).

1787—Sweden: Johann Christian Friedrich Haeffner writes an opera, Electra, that calls for trombone (Guion, Trombone 165).

1787—Vienna, Austria: Mozart employs trombones in Don Giovanni, particularly for ecclesiastical/supernatural associations. Trombones are left out of the score until Commendatore’s statue comes to life.

1787—Paris, France: Gluck’s last composition, “De Profundis,” utilizes 3 trombones.

1787—England: Samuel Arnold uses 4 trombones in his oratorio, Redemption (Guion, Trombone 147).

1787—France: Antonio Salieri composes the opera Tarare, which calls for trombones (Guion, Trombone 175).

1787/8—Vienna, Austria: the Burgtheater employs 3 trombones for 7 performances of Salieri’s Axur, re d’Ormus (Edge).

1788—France: Luigi Cherubini composes Demophoon, an opera that utilizes trombone (Guion, Trombone 175). He later writes numerous other operas with trombones, including Lodoiska (1791), L ‘hotellerie portugaise (1798), Les deux journées (1800) Epicure (1800), Anacréon (1803), and Achille a Scyros (1804) (Guion, Trombone 192).

1788—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Salieri uses trombones in his Mass in D to double alto and tenor vocal lines (Cameron 83).

1789—Mozart includes trombones in his orchestration of Handel’s Messiah.

1789—England: Samuel Arnold uses 4 trombones in his oratorio, The Triumph of Truth (Guion, Trombone 147).

c. 1791—Ignaz Pleyel writes several orchestral works that include trombone: Symphony in B-flat, Symphony in e-flat, and Symphony in A(Guion, Trombone 268).

c. 1791—Haydn calls for 2 trombones in L’anima del filosofo (Spitzer Table 1.1).

1791—Vienna, Austria: Mozart employs trombones prominently in Magic Flute, particularly for ecclesiastical/supernatural associations.

1791—Vienna, Austria: Mozart writes his Requiem, which includes the famous “Tuba Mirum” solo. The first 18 measures are composed by Mozart; the following portion is added later by Süssmayr (Guion, Trombone 139).

1791—St. Petersburg, Russia: Nachal’noe upravlenie Olega, an opera composed by Giuseppe Sarti, Carlo Canobbio, and Vasily Pashkeevich, is published. It includes 2 trombones (Guion, Trombone 164).

1791—St. Petersburg, Russia: Carlo Canobbio writes a military march for 4 trumpets, trombone, and triangle (Tarr, East Meets West 23).

1791-1803—Paris, France: Étienne Méhul writes at least 12 operas that call for trombone (Guion, Trombone 193).

1792—Sweden: Joseph Martin Kraus writes Begravningskantat over Gustav III, which includes trombone (Guion, Trombone 165).

1792—Pleyel’s Sinfonia concertante in F Major (Ben 113), which includes trombone, receives excellent reviews for its London premiere. It is not published until 1794 (Guion, Trombone 149, 268).

1793—Pleyel writes the French Revolution orchestral piece, La Révolution du 10 aout 1792, ou Le tocsin allégorique, which requires trombone (Guion, Trombone 187).

1793—Paris, France: François Joseph Gossec’s opera La triomphe de la république calls for trombone (Guion, Trombone 192).

1795—Paris, France: François Joseph Gossec writes the French Revolution orchestral piece Serment républicaine, which calls for trombone (Guion, Trombone 187).

1796—Paris, France: François Joseph Gossec writes a French Revolution orchestral piece called Hymne guerrier, which requires trombone (Guion, Trombone 187).

1796—Dresden, Germany: Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf calls for 3 trombones in his opera Ugolino (Guion, Trombone 160).

1798—London, England: Composer Michael Kelly uses trombone in his opera Blue Beard (Guion, Trombone 147).

1799—London, England: Composer Michael Kelly calls for trombone in the incidental music to Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s play, Pizzaro (Guion, Trombone 147).

1800—Paris, France: Etienne Nicolas Méhul writes a French Revolution orchestral piece called Chant nationale du 14 juillet 1800, which requires trombone (Guion, Trombone 187).