Vocal Solo or Duo with Trombone, Pre-1800

Santa Maria di Pol

Angel-musicians perform on voice and trombone in a 17th century painting (Sanctuario di Santa Maria di Pol, Verona)

1602—Lodovico da Viadana’s Cento concerti ecclesiastici includes O bone Jesu, scored for tenor voice and 2 trombones (Roche 54).

1606—In Italy, Leone Leoni’s Sacri fiori includes two works that feature trombone: In te Domine speravi for 2 alto voices and two trombones, and Deus exaudi for 2 soprano voices, trombone, and violetta (Kurtzman, Monteverdi Vespers, 121).

1609—In Italy, a number of Girolamo Giacobbi’s psalms are scored for coro ordinario (SATB) and coro grave (alto voice with 3 trombones) (Roche 120).

1609—In Italy, Lodovico da Viadana’s Cento concerti III includes Repleatur, a concertato work for alto voice, tenor voice, and 2 trombones. It also includes Benedicam Dominum in omni tempore for 2 tenor voices and 2 trombones (Roche 82; Kurtzman, Monteverdi Vespers 123).

1611—In Italy, Arcangelo Borsaro’s Novo giardino de concerti specifies optional substitution of trombones for the lower 2 voices in each of its 20 motets (Kurtzman, Monteverdi Vespers, 123).

1610—In Bologna, Italy, Adriano Banchieri writes a collection of 21 motets. Following the last page of music, the composer offers a table of several ways the motets may be performed; among the ways are “Trombone & Violino Stromenti” and “Basso Trombone & Soprano voce” (Collver 42).

1613—In Mantua, Italy, Amante Franzoni includes “Concerto a cinque” for 4 trombones and tenor voice, as well as Sancta Maria ora pro nobis for 4 trombones and soprano voice, in the collection Appartato Musicale di Messa (Kurtzman, Monteverdi Vespers 32).

1614—Italy: Usper’s Intonuit is scored for 2 voices and 4 trombones (Whitwell, Baroque 213).

1615—Italy: Arcangelo Borsaro writes for 2 cornettos (or violins), trombone, and organ in his La Matusaleme a tre from Odarati fiori (Collver 45).

1620—In Italy, Ercole Porta’s Corda Deo dabimus, contained in the collection Sacro convito, is scored for soprano voice, alto voice, and 3 trombones. Roche coins the phrase “trombone motet” for this type of piece, a genre that culminates in Schütz’s Absalom fili mi (1629) (Roche 82).

1621—Johann Schein’s, Musica Boscareccia, which contains music of 3 melody lines, specifies the following for the third line: “bass voice or trombone or bassoon or violone” (Dart 128).

1621—At the Bavarian court in Munich, cornettist and trombonist Giulio Martino Cesare writes a collection of 28 instrumental and vocal works called Musicali Melodie. It includes a motet for one voice and 3 trombones (Dickey Cornett and Sackbut 107).

1629—Venice, Italy: Dario Castello, a member of the piffaro, calls extensively for trombone in a collection of sonatas. Specifically, Sonata Quinta is scored for soprano voice and trombone or violetta; Sonata Sesta is scored for soprano voice and trombone or violetta; Sonata Undecima is scored for 2 soprano voices and trombone or violetta; Sonata Duodecima is scored for 2 soprano voices and trombone or violetta; Sonata Decima Terza is scored for 2 soprano voices and 2 trombones or violette; and Sonata Decima Quarta is scored for 2 soprano voices and 2 trombones or violette (Winkler 301; Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation).

1629—Heinrich Schütz’s collection of works, Symphoniae Sacrae, utilizes trombone extensively, drawing on both the German church tower tradition and Italian polychoral methods. Noteworthy examples include “Fili mi, Absalon” (bass voice accompanied by 4 trombones and organ), and “Attendite, popule meus” (bass voice accompanied by 4 trombones and organ) (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list—both “Fili mi” and “Attendite”). Performance edition available (Musica Rara, Robert King).

1648—Johann Rosenmüller scores for soprano voice, 2 violas or trombones, violone or trombone, and basso continuo in Lieber Herre Gott (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1648—Johann Rosenmüller scores for 2 alto voices, 3 violas or trombones, violone or trombone, and basso continuo in O admirabile commercium (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

c. 1650—Andreas Hammerschmidt writes Gott sei, mir gnädig, for bass voice and 3 trombones. Performance edition available (Kagarice Brass Ed).

1652/53—Johann Rosenmüller scores for alto voice, 2 violas or trombones, violone or trombone, and basso continuo in O dives omnium bonarum dapum (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1652/53—Johann Rosenmüller scores for soprano and alto voices, 2 violas or trombones, violone or trombone, and basso continuo in O dulcis Christe, bone Jesu Charitas (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1652/53—Johann Rosenmüller scores for alto voices, 3 violas or trombone, violone or trombone, and basso continuo in Amo te Deus meus amore magno (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1657—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for alto voice, 2 violas or trombones, violone or trombone, and basso continuo in Gehe aus auf die Landstrassen (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1657—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for alto voice, 3 violas or trombones, a violone or trombone, and basso continuo in Jesu dulcis memoria (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1658—Johann Rudolf Ahle writes “Herr, nun läßt Du Deinen Diener,” from Neu-gepflantzten Thüringischen Lust-Gartens Ander Theil, for bass voice, four trombones, and continuo (Ahle). Performance edition available (Howard Weiner edition, Kagarice Brass Ed.)

1681—Rupert Ignaz Mayr, “Beati Omnes,” from Sacri Concentus (Regensburg, 1681), for alto (or high tenor) voice, trombone (or viola), and continuo. Performance edition available (Howard Weiner edition, Kagarice Brass Ed.)

c. 1700—Nuremberg, Germany: A movement of Johann Pachelbel’s cantata Lobet den Herrn in seinem Heiligtum calls for solo alto voice with solo trombone (Samuel 88).

1704—Vienna, Austria: Marc’ Antonio Ziani’s aria, “Quel sembiante” from Il mistico Giobbe, features solo soprano voice with trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1705—Vienna, Austria: Joseph I composes the aria “Alme Ingrate.” Scored for trombone, soprano voice, and organ, it treats trombone in a virtuosic manner (Wigness 27-28). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list). Performance edition available (Virgo).

1705—Vienna, Austria: Marc’ Antonio Ziani writes “Virgo, Virgo prius” from Alma Redemptoris Mater for alto voice, alto trombone, and continuo (Ziani). Performance edition available (Modern Editions, Virgo).

1705—Vienna, Austria: Marc’ Antonio Ziani writes the solo motet Alma Redemptoris Mater. Scored for 2 trombones, alto voice, bassoon, and continuo, it includes numerous solo passages for trombone (Wigness 26; Ziani). Performance edition available (Virgo).

1706—Vienna, Austria: Marc’ Antonio Ziani’s La morte vinta sul includes 3 arias that feature trombone as an obbligato instrument (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1707—Vienna, Austria: Marc’ Antonio Ziani’s aria, “Non é giunta” from Il Sacrifizio d’Isacco, features solo tenor voice with trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1708—Vienna, Austria: Marc’ Antonio Ziani’s aria, “Se dei pur senz’ aita” from La passione nell’orto, features an obbligato alto trombone and is scored for alto voice and alto trombone (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1716—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux’s aria, “Vedi che il Redentor” from Il fonte della salute, features soprano voice and obbligato alto trombone (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1717—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara writes the aria “Quell’amor” (from Santa Ferma) for soprano voice, 2 trombones, and continuo (Caldara; Carter, Trombone Obbligatos). Performance edition available (Warwick).

1718—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux’s aria, “Dal limbo” from Cristo nell’orto, features obbligato alto trombone and is scored for alto voice, alto trombone, and 2 violins (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1718—Vienna, Austria: Francesco Conti’s aria, “Mia compagna io la credea” from La colpa originale, features alto voice with alto trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1719—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux’s aria, “Da Christo ch’é pio” from Gesu Cristo negato da Pietro, features alto voice with alto trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1720—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux’s aria, “O beata l’alme” from La cena del Signore, features soprano and alto voice with alto trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

c. 1721—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara uses alto trombone in a virtuosic obbligato style to accompany alto and tenor vocal soloists in Jesu dulcis memoria (Selfridge-Field, Caldara 130).

1721—Vienna, Austria: Giuseppe Porsile’s aria, “Caro trono” from Il zelo di Nathan, features alto voice with alto trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1722—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara’s aria, “Quando amato” from Il Ré del dolore, features tenor voice with a pair of obbligato trombones (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos; Selfridge-Field, Caldara 138). See 10:17 in below clip.

1723—Vienna, Austria: Francesco Conti’s aria, “Fuggo d’una in altra selva” from Il David perseguitato, features alto voice with alto trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1724—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara’s arias, “Deh scogliere” and “Languire, morire” from Morte, e sepoltura di Christo, feature obbligato alto trombone with solo voice (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1725—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara’s aria, “Qual del Libano” from Le profezie evangeliche di Isaia, features alto voice with alto trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1726—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara’s aria, “Cosí a fiume” from Joaz, features solo alto voice with alto trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1726—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux’s aria, “Venite, angioli” from Il testamento di nostro Signor Gesu Cristo al Calvario, features soprano and alto soloists with alto trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1727—Vienna, Austria: George Reutter’s aria, “Io ti do” from Abele, features solo alto voice with alto trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

c. 1728—Johann Joseph Fux composes the antiphon Alma Redemptoris for soprano voice and trombone. It contains one of the longest and most elaborate solos in a vocal work in the early trombone literature. The full score calls for soprano voice, alto trombone, strings, and continuo (Wigness 28; Fux). Performance edition available (Babcock/Kagarice Brass Ed).

1728—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux’s aria, “Chi ti conosco” from La deposizione della croce, features alto trombone in an obbligato role (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1728—Vienna, Austria: George Reutter’s aria, “Offesi, il veggo” from Elia, features solo alto voice with alto trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1729—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara uses alto trombone as an obbligato instrument to accompany alto voice in Missa Commemorationis (Selfridge-Field, Caldara 131).

1729—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara uses alto trombone as an obbligato instrument to accompany soprano voice in “Dio, qual sia la ria sentenza” of his oratorio, Naboth (Selfridge-Field, Caldara 138; Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1730—In Vienna, Antonio Caldara writes “Dovunque il Guardo Giro” (from La Passione di Gesu Christo Signor Nostro) for soprano voice, alto trombone, and keyboard (Caldara). Performance edition available (Warwick).

1731—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara’s aria, “Del fallo m’avvedo” from La morte d’Abel, features alto voice with obbligato alto trombone (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1731—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara uses alto trombone as an obbligato instrument in his aria, “Dal tuo seglio luminoso” from Santa Elena al Calvario (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1733—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara uses alto trombone as an obbligato instrument the aria “Buon Gesú” of his oratorio, Gerusalemme convertito(Selfridge-Field, Caldara 138; Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1734—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara uses alto trombone as an obbligato instrument the aria “Dov’é giá sviene” from his oratorio, San Pietro in Cesarea (Selfridge-Field, Caldara 138; Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1734—Vienna, Austria: George Reutter’s aria, “Ah se o da vivere” from Gioas, Ré di Giuda, features solo soprano voice with obbligato alto trombone (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1734—In Vienna, Georg Reutter’s Missa Sancti Caroli includes a solo movement, “Gratias agimus tibi,” for alto voice, alto trombone, and continuo (Guion Trombone 131; Reutter). Performance edition available (Virgo).

1736—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara uses alto trombone as one of several obbligato instruments in his setting of Psalm 111/112, Beatus vir qui timet Dominum (Selfridge-Field, Caldara 134).

1738—Vienna, Austria: Luca Antonio Predieri’s aria, “Dio sol ne porge aita” from I Sacrificio d’Abramo, features solo alto voice with alto trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

c. 1740—In Vienna, Franz Tuma composes Missa in chordis et organo in G. The “Gratias” consists of solo alto voice, 2 trombones playing soloistic obbligato parts, and continuo (Mac Intyre 292).

1741—Vienna, Austria: Georg Christoph Wagenseil writes Missa Sancti Antonii, which utilizes 2 trombones as obbligato instruments in the “Et incarnates” and “Agnus Dei” (Mac Intyre 671).

1741—In Vienna, Franz Tuma writes Inno Per Il Festo di St. Teresia for alto voice, alto trombone, strings, and continuo (Tuma). Performance edition available (Modern Editions).

1742—In Vienna, Franz Tuma writes “Almo Factori” from Motetto de Tempori for alto voice, alto trombone, and continuo (Tuma). Performance edition available (Modern Editions).

1742—Vienna, Austria: Franz Tuma’s Messa della morte is performed. The requiem requires a solo alto trombone with solo alto voice in the “Tuba mirum” section (Smithers, Mozart’s Orchestral Brass).

c. 1750—Johann Zechner writes “Aria Solemnus” from Salus for alto trombone, alto voice, and continuo (Zechner). Performance edition available (Virgo).

c. 1750—In Salzburg, Ernst Eberlin writes “Fleiss o heisser Tränenbach” (from Der verurteilte Jesus) for alto trombone, soprano voice, and strings (Eberlin). Performance edition available (Virgo).

c. 1750—In Salzburg, Ernst Eberlin writes “Menschen sagt Was ist das leben” (from Der verlorene sohn) for alto trombone, tenor voice, and orchetra (Eberlin). Performance edition available (Virgo).

c. 1760—Johann Georg Albrechtsberger writes Aria Passione Domine for alto voice, alto trombone, strings, and continuo (Albrechtsberger). Performance edition available (Virgo).

c. 1760—In Salzburg, Leopold Mozart writes “Agnus Dei” (from Lauretanische Litanei) for alto trombone, alto voice, and orchestra (Mozart). Performance edition available (Virgo).

c. 1760—In Vienna, Georg Christoph Wagenseil writes “Memoriam” (from Confitebor) for alto trombone, alto voice, and orchestra (Wagenseil). Performance edition available (Virgo).

c. 1760—Vienna, Austria: Joseph Krottendorfer, a member of the Hofkapelle, writes his Missa in C, in which a single, florid solo trombone accompanies the alto soloist in the “Agnus Dei” movement (Mac Intyre 80, 508).

1761—Vienna, Austria: Marianne von Martínez, one of the first female composers in the region to win serious recognition, writes Terza Messa. In the “Benedictus” movement, 2 solo trombones accompany the tenor soloist (Mac Intyre 81, 631).

1767—In Salzburg, the skeptical Archbishop locks 11-year-old Mozart in a room by himself to see if he can really compose without help from his father. Mozart writes the cantata Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots, K 35, which uses solo alto trombone in Christ’s aria, “Jener Donnerworte Kraft” (for tenor voice, alto trombone, and strings). Performance edition available (Modern Editions, Virgo).