Trombone With Various Other Ensembles, 1651-1800

1651—Frankfurt, Germany: Johann Andreas Herbst writes Domine Dominus noster, which calls for 3 trombones (Collver 123).

1651—Venice, Italy: Italian composer and organist Massimiliano Neri issues a collection of sonatas, Sonate da sonarsi con varii stromenti, scored for diverse combinations of instruments, including trombones. Regarding instrumentation, the collection’s preface mentions that performers may adapt instrumentation “to their taste.” Many of the sonatas may have been intended for the wedding of the Habsburg emperor Ferdinand III (Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation). Sonata 8 is scored for 2 cornetts, bassoon, and 3 trombones; Sonata 11 is scored for 2 violins, viola, 2 cornetts, bassoon, and 3 trombones; Sonata 12 is scored for 5 violins and 5 trombones; and Sonata 14 is scored for 2 cornetts, bassoon, 3 trombones, 2 violins, viola, and tiorba or viola (Collver 63; Winkler 304).

1652—Zittau, Germany: Andreas Hammerschmidt calls for 3 trombones in Lob- und Dank Lied aus dem 84 Psalm (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1652—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Rosenmüller calls for 3 trombones (or 2 viols and a bassoon) in his Siehe an die Wercke Gottes.

1654—Jindrichuv Hradec, Moravia (modern Czech Republic): Organist and composer Adam Václav Michna writes Missa pro defunctis, a Requiem Mass in which 3 trombones double vocal lines (Chase 127).

1654—Wolfenbüttel, Germany: A masque called Der Natur Ballet, by Sophie Elisabeth, is performed. It portrays the character of each of the 7 planets, using trombones and cornetts on the Jupiter portion (Spagnoli 46).

1655—Venice, Italy: Biagio Marini’s Sonata Quarta a 4 from the collection Per ogni sorte di strumento musicale calls for 2 violins, viola or trombone, and basso (Winkler 304).

1656—Venice, Italy: Francesco Cavalli Musiche Sacre, a collection of 28 pieces, includes three optional trombone parts printed into the alto, tenor, and bass parts of the second choir (Glover 125).

1656—Venice, Italy: Francesco Cavalli scores for trombone and strings in 2 sonatas and 2 canzonas (Winkler 304).

1657—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for SATB, cornetto or violin, 2 violas or trombones, a violone or trombone, and basso continuo in his Magnificat (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1657—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for SATB, 2 violins, 3 trombones or violas, trombone or violone, and basso continuo in his Missa a 10 (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1658—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for soprano, alto, and tenor voice; 3 flutes or violins; flute or trombone or violone; and basso continuo in Seht euch für den falschen Propheten (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1658—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, trombone or bassoon or viola, trombone or bassoon, 2 bassoons, and basso continuo in Fürchtet euch nicht (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1658—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, 2 violins, 2 violas or trombones, 2 flutes, 2 trombones, and basso continuo in Meine Seele erhebet den Herren (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1658—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for SATB, 2 violins, 3 trombones, and basso continuo in Erschienen ist der herrliche Tag (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1658—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, 3 trombones or violas, “trombone majore,” and basso continuo in his Magnificat (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1658—Christian Sartorius calls for 2 trombones the “Alleluja” of his Unterschiedlicher Teutscher (Collver 162).

1658—Briegel scores for voices, 2 cornetti, 4 trombones, and basso continuo in his Nun lob mein Seel (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1659—Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, Sonata a 3 for 2 violins, trombone or viola da gamba, and continuo.

c. 1660—Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, Sonata a 3 for violin, trombone, bassoon, and continuo (Brewer, Instrumental 29).

1660—Jacob Melani utilizes 3 cornetts and a trombone in his opera, Ercole in Tebe (Weaver, Sixteenth-Century Instrumentation).

1662—Vienna, Austria: Leopold I writes Domine Jesu Christe, which calls for 2 trombones (Collver 132).

1662—Zittau, Germany: Andreas Hammerschmidt scores for soprano voice, 2 trombette, 4 trombones, violone, and basso continuo in Nun lob mein Seel (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1662—Zittau, Germany: Andreas Hammerschmidt scores for alto voice, 2 clarinos, 4 trombones, violone, and basso continuo in Herr hadre and Gelobet systu Jesu Christi (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1662— Zittau, Germany: Andreas Hammerschmidt scores for voices, 2 violins, 3 trombones, and basso continuo in his Missa XIII (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1662—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Bertali’s (1605-1669) Sonata S. Leopoldi a 14 calls for 4 trombones (Collver 44).

1663— Zittau, Germany: Andreas Hammerschmidt scores for voices, 2 violins, 4 trombones, and basso continuo in his Missa XVI (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1663—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, 2 violins, 2 trombette, 2 cornetti, 2 trombones, 2 flauti, and basso continuo in Sie ist fest gegründet (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1664—Heinrich Schütz writes his Weihnachtshistorie (Christmas History), which includes a pair of trombones acting as obbligato instruments and specifically representing high priests (Smallman 151).

1664—Bernhard’s multichoral Benedic anima mea calls for 4 trombones (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1664-1687—Mülhausen, Germany: Johann Rudolf Ahle’s Salamonisches Liebes Gespräch Komm meine Braut von Libanon calls for 5 trombones (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

c. 1665—In Germany, Matthias Weckmann writes a set of 10 instrumental sonatas for the Hamburg Collegium Musicum. All but one of the sonatas designate trombone. All but two of the sonatas are scored for four instruments and continuo. The most common combination in the set is cornettino, violin, trombone, bassoon, and continuo. Alternates are given for many of the parts (Collver 73). Septenary publishes a good edition.

1665—Johann Rudolph Ahle’s sacred work, Höre, Gott mein Geschrey, calls for 5 tenor trombones and 2 bass trombones (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1665—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, 2 violins, 4 trombones, and basso continuo in Zwingt die Saiten in Cithara (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1665—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, 2 violins, 4 trombones, and basso continuo in Wie bin ich doch so herzlich froh (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1665—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for voices, 2 trombette, 3 trombones, and basso continuo in his Benedicamus (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1665—Johann Rudolph Ahle calls for 4 trombones in his Gloria in excelsis Deo (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1665—Johann Rudolph Ahle’s chorale concerto, Zwingt der Saiten in Cithara, calls for 3 voices, 2 violins, and 4 trombones (Buelow History 228).

1665—In Vienna, Antonio Bertali’s Sonata Sublationis is copied. The work is written for 2 trumpets, 2 trumpets ad lib, 2 violins, 3 viols or trombones (notated respectively in alto, tenor, and bass clefs), and continuo (Bertali, Sonata Sublationis).

1667—Martin Schneider writes Erster Theil. The collection contains several works for the following instrumentation: soprano voice, alto trombone, tenor trombone, 2 trumpets (or cornettinos or violins), violone or trombone, and continuo (Collver 166).

1668—Heinrich Biber writes Intrada for 6 trumpets, 3 trombones, and timpani (Whitwell Catalog Baroque 2).

1668—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux writes Missa S. Ignatij and Missa Augusta, both of which call for 4 trombones (Collver 116).

1668—Marc’ Antonio Cesti uses trombones in Il pomo d’oro, an extensive, 8-hour opera performed for the birthday of Margherita of Spain, wife of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I (Guion, Short History).

1668—Modena, Italy: Marco Uccellini calls for trombone in a collection of his works (Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation).

1668—Venice, Italy: Pietro Andrea Ziani’s Sonata XX is scored for 2 violins, alto or tenor viola, and 2 trombones or 2 violas (Winkler 304).

1669—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Pezel writes a now-lost collection, Decas Sonatarum, of 6-part pieces for 4 trombones and 2 cornetts (Collver 188; Whitwell, Baroque 158).

1669—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Pezel writes Missa a 10 & 15, which call for 3 trombones (Collver 146).

1669—In Vienna, Antonio Bertali (1605-1669) writes Missa Resurrectionis, which calls for 5 trombones, Missa Archiducalis, which calls for 4 trombones, and Sonata a 13, which calls for 3 trombones (Collver 44, 90).

1669—Vienna, Austria: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, Sonata a 4 “La Carioletta” for cornett, violin, trombone, and bassoon (Collver 68; Brewer, Instrumental 8).

1670—An anonymous sonata, titled Sonata per la camera e chiesa, calls for 2 violins, 2 cornetts, 3 trombones or violas, and organ (Collver 40).

1671—Vienna, Austria: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (1623-1680) calls for 2 trombones in his Missa tarde venientium (Collver 165).

1671—Trombone is called for in Paul Konwalynka’s Musicalische Neu-Jahrs Beehrung (Collver 128).

1672—Knüpfer calls for 4 trombones in Quare fremuerent gentes (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1672—Christian Ritter calls for 3 trombones in his Gelobet sey der Name des Herren (Collver 156).

1673—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber calls for 3 trombones (the only winds in the piece) in his Lux Perpetua (Chafe 87, 237).

1673—Vienna, Austria: Leopold I, second son of Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, composes Missa pro defunctis, probably for the death of his first wife. The piece calls for 2 trombones (Chase 120).

1674—Becker scores for voices, 2 violins or trombette, 2 trombones or violas, trombone or bassoon or violone, and basso continuo in Das Blut Jesu Christi (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1674—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber’s polychoral mass, Missa Christi Resurgentis, calls for 3 trombones (Chafe 84, 234).

1674—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber’s Vesperae a 32 calls for 3 trombones (Chafe 119).

1674—Vienna, Austria: Wolfgang Ebner composes Missa Contrapuncto for choir, cornett, violone, 3 trombones, and organ (Collver 103; Whitwell, Catalog Baroque 2).

1674—Johann Heinrich Schmelzer’s “Balletto di Centauri, Ninfe et Salvatici,” for 3 choirs, includes a choir of “2 Cornetti muti et 3 Tromboni” (Holman Violin 251).

1674—Composer Martin Mayer writes a vocal work called Hosianna dem Sohne David, which calls for 3 trombones (Collver 136).

c. 1675—Poland: Stanislaw Sylwester Szarzynski’s Gloria in excelsis Deo calls for an instrumental accompaniment of 2 violins and 3 trombones (labeled Trombone Alto, Trombone Tenore, and Trombone Basso e Viola) (Przybyszewska-Jarminska, Baroque part I, 322).

c. 1675—Vienna, Austria: Johann Kaspar Kerll’s Missa a 3 cori, written for a performance at St. Stephen’s cathedral, includes a “Crucifixus” scored for 3 solo bass voices and trombones (Chafe 50).

c. 1675—Johann Rosenmüller calls for 5 trombones in his Als der Tag der Pfingsten erfüllet war (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

c. 1675—Johann Rosenmüller calls for 5 trombones in his Nun gibst du, Gott, einen gnädigen Regen (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

c. 1675—Johann Rosenmüller calls for 4 trombones in Daran ist erschienen die Liebe Gottes a 7 (Collver 159).

c. 1675—Johann Rosenmüller calls for 3 trombones in Dixit Dominus (Collver 158).

1675—Breslau, Poland: Martin Meuer’s Jubilate a 37 o 44, performed at the church of St. Mary Magdalen for an anniversary service, calls for 4 trombones in one of the 5 choirs (Chafe 50).

1675—Lübeck, Germany: Dietrich Buxtehude composes Sinfonia, in Ihr lieben Christen, freat euch nun, for 3 trombones and 3 cornetts (Whitwell, Catalog Baroque 122).

1675—Johann Heinrich Schmelzer’s “Sonata natalitia,” for 3 choirs, includes a choir of “2 Cornetti muti et 3 Tromboni” (Holman Violin 251).

1675—Venice, Italy: Francesco Cavalli, maestro di cappella at St. Mark’s, sensing that his life is drawing to a close, composes his Missa pro defunctic per octo vocibus for his own funeral. He leaves specific instructions that the instruments should consist of 2 violins, 4 violas, 2 cornets, 2 theoroboes, trombones, bassoon, bass viol, and 3 organs. The work is performed at his funeral a year later (Chase 106).

1676—Vienna, Austria: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (1623-1680) calls for 4 trombones in his Ad concentus o mortals ad triumphos (Collver 165).

1676—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Pezel composes music for a now-lost collection, Intraden, which consists of works for cornett and 3 trombones (Collver 188; Whitwell, Baroque 158).

1676—Vienna, Austria: Leopold I writes Parce mihi and Tres Lectiones I, both of which call for 2 trombones (Collver 132, 134).

1676—Composer Martin Mayer writes several vocal works that call for 3 trombones: Es wird dass Scepter von Juda, Schmecket und sehet wie freundlich, Heylig ist der Herre Zebaoth, Kommet her zu mir alle, and Ich wil mich mit dir verloben (Collver 136).

1677—Johann Rosenmüller writes Entsetze dich, Natur, which calls for an instrumental accompaniment of 2 violins, 2 cornettos, 3 trombones, and continuo (Collver 158).

1677—Vienna, Austria: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (1623-1680) includes 3 trombones in his Missa Mater purissima (Collver 165).

1677—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Bertali (1605-1669) writes Missa Redemptoris, which utilizes trombones prominently (Collver 90).

1677—Composer Martin Mayer writes Gott ist unser Zuversicht und stärcke; Freude! Jesus ist erstanden; and Ihr Lieben, gläubet nicht einem ieglichen Geiste, all ofwhich call for 3 trombones (Collver 136).

1677—Leipzig, Germany: Sebastian Knüpfer’s Der Herr ist König calls for 7 trombones, 5 tenors and 2 basses (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone).

1678—Johann Rudolph Ahle scores for soprano voices, 2 trombette, 3 trombones, and basso continuo in his Freudenlied (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1678—Vienna, Austria: Leopold I writes Stabat Mater, which calls for 2 trombones (Collver 132).

1679—Vienna, Austria: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (1623-1680) calls for 3 trombones in his Missa peregrina in honorem S. Rochi (Collver 165).

1679—Italy: Stefano Pasino scores for 2 trombones and 2 cornetts in his 4-part Sonata duodecima detta la Savolda (Winkler 304; Collver 63).

1680—Italy: Giovanni Freschi composes the opera Berenice, which calls for 6 trombones (Whitwell, Baroque 68).

1681—Rupert Ignaz Mayr writes “Beati Omnes” (from Sacri Concentus) for alto (or high tenor) voice, trombone (or viola), and continuo (Mayr).

1681—Genoa, Italy: Alessandro Stradella composes Inventione per un barcheggio for the wedding celebrations of Signori Carlo Spinola and Paula Brignole, members of two noble families. In the work, trombone is specified as part of the continuo. Precise instructions include the following: “All the basses with one trombone, but the trombone must play very staccato and with little breath.” The performance, as described by a chronicler of the time, takes place on the water: “Towards the evening on Thursday the ladies and gentlemen of this city had a sumptuous diversion on the bay, having been taken round the harbour by four galleys, besides a very great number of smaller boats, and then conducted aboard an apparatus [made] of barges, [which] formed a hall covered by light-weight silk and richly adorned. Here they were entertained with an interweaving of harmonious voices, poetry and instrumental music accompanied by the most exquisite food and refreshments of all sorts…” (Gianturco).

1682—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber (1644-1704) calls for 4 trombones in his Missa (“Salisburgenis”), including a “Crusifixus” scored for 4 bass voices and trombones (Collver 91; Chafe 50).

1683—Johann Rosenmüller writes Gloria in excelsis Deo, which calls for 4 trombones (Collver 157).

1684—Johann Krieger calls for 3 trombones in the “Zu ende des Kirchen-Jahrs” of his Newe Musikalische Ergetzligkeit (Collver 128).

1684—Benedetto Sarti calls for 3 trombones in his Domine adjuvandum (Collver 162).

1684—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Draghi calls for 4 trombones in his Missa Assumptionis (Collver 103).

c. 1685—Vienna, Austria: It is probably in Salzburg circa 1685 that Georg Muffat composes his Missa in labore requies, which calls for two separate groups of 3 trombones. The mass is preceded by a sonata that calls for 3 trombones (Collver 141; Brewer, Instrumental Music 285).

1685—Germany: Daniel Speer, a former Stadtpfeifer, writes Recens fabricatus labor, oder neugebachene Taffel-Schnitz, which includes 7 sonatas for wind ensemble (including trombone). In addition to the works for 4 trombones (listed above) and trombone-cornetto quintet (listed above), the following sonatas specify trombone: Aufzug a 6 (2 different works that call for 6 trumpets or cornetts, trombone), Sonata a 4 (trumpet or cornett, 3 trombones, continuo), and Sonata a 4 (cornett, 3 trombones, continuo)  (Collver 68; Whitwell, Baroque 160; Speer Sonata).

1685—Johann Philipp Krieger calls for 3 trombones in the “Preise, Jerusalem” of his Cantate Domine (Collver 129).

1685—Krüger’s Psalmodia Sacra calls for trombone extensively (Galpin, The Sackbut).

1686—J.P. Krieger scores for soprano voices, violin, and viola da gamba or trombone in Ich bin eine Blume zu Saron (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1687—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber writes Requiem a 15 in Concerto, probably for the funeral of Archbishop Maximillian von Khuenberg. The piece utilizes 3 trombones that double vocal parts (Chase 103).

c. 1690—Schulze calls for trombone (or bassoon or violone) in his Historia Resurrectionis Domini nostri (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

c. 1690—Knüpfer calls for 4 trombones in Komm heilger Geist (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1690—Johann Rosenmüller calls for 4 trombones in Siehe eine Jungfrau ist (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1690—Salzburg, Austria: After this date, Heinrich Biber calls for 3 trombones in his Offertorium, Ne Cedite (Chafe 238).

1690—Salzburg, Austria: After this date, Heinrich Biber utilizes 3 trombones in an independent style (as opposed to colla parte) in his Requiem a 15 (Chafe 109).

1691—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Draghi calls for 2 cornetts, 3 trombones, and bassoon in the “Sinfonia con stromenti da fiato” of his  Festspiel “Il Pelegrinaggio delle Gratie,” “am 22. April 1691 zum Namensfest der regierenden Kaiserin Eleonora Magdalena Theresa aufgefuert” (Collver 103).

1693—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber’s Vesperae longiores ac beviores unacum litanies Lauretanis calls for 3 trombones and a cornett to double the 4-part chorus (Buelow, History 232; Collver 91).

1694—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Draghi’s aria, “Si spezza il suolo” from Il libro con sette sigilli, features a trombone obbligato and is scored for bass voice, alto trombone, and bassoon (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1696—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber utilizes 3 trombones, colla parte, in his Missa S. Henrici (Chafe 95, 234).

1696—Leipzig, Germany: Gottfried Reiche, a Stadtpfeifer player of trumpet, horn, and cornett, writes Vier und Zwanzig neue Quatricinia, a set of 24 quartets for cornett and 3 trombones. All of the individual pieces are labeled either sonatina or fuga. Some alternate instrumentation, like trumpet for cornett, is indicated (Collver 65; Guion Trombone 156).

1697—Ulm, Germany: Daniel Speer writes Grundrichtiger, kurtzleicht und nöthiger Unterricht, which includes 6 pieces for trombone and 2 cornetts (Collver 69).

1699—Andreas Hofer (1629-1684) calls for 3 trombones in his Missa Archiepiscopalis (Collver 123).

c. 1700—Heinrich Biber’s Missa Bruxellensis calls for 3 trombones (Collver 90).

c. 1700—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber’s Litania de S. Josepho a 20 calls for 3 trombones (Chafe 179).

1700—Knüpfer scores for voices, 2 violins or cornettini, viola da gamba or bambardo or trombone, and organ in O benignissime Jesu (Leonard, The Role of the Trombone…Mid- and Late Seventeenth Century).

1701—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber uses trombones to double voices in his Missa St. Henrici (Cameron 81).

1704—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux’s Te Deum, K 271, calls for 2 trombones.

1705—Lübeck, Germany: Buxtehude calls for muted trombone in his Castrum doloris: “trombones and trumpets with mutes, and all other instruments similarly muted” (Schulze, Johann Sebastian Bach’s Orchestra).

vc. 1710—Stuttgart, Germany: Johann Georg Christian Störl writes 6 sonatas for cornett and 3 trombones (Collver 70).

1710—Italy: Francesco Magini writes 2 sonatas for the combination of 4 trombones and 2 cornetts (Collver 59).

1713—Francesco Magini publishes a collection of sonatas titled Sonate di Francesco Magini per il Campidoglio 1713. It includes 7 different sonatas scored for 4 trombones (alto, tenor, tenor, bass) and 2 cornetts (Collver 59).

1715—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux calls for 3 trombones in his Orfeo ed Euridice (Spitzer Table 1.1).

c. 1716—Johann Joseph Fux calls for trombone, violin, cornetto, and bassoon in his Sonata a 4, K. 347 (Collver 50).

1717—Sorau, Poland: Georg Philipp Telemann calls for 3 trombones in his vocal work (TB), Erhöre mich, wenn ich rufe (Collver 178).

1719—Sorau, Poland: Georg Philipp Telemann calls for 3 trombones in his vocal work (STB), Jesu, wirst du bald erscheinen (Collver 178).

c. 1720—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Caldara uses trombones to double strings in his Mass for 4 Voices (Cameron 84).

1720—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux, Kapellmeister at the Imperial Court, writes the Emperor’s Requiem for the funeral of the widow of Emperor Leopold I. The work, which reportedly continues to be used at royal funeral services up until 1743, utilizes 2 trombones to double the lower vocal lines and for an obbligato role in the “Tuba Mirum.” The obligato use of trombone in the “Tuba Mirum,” of course, foreshadows Mozart’s Requiem (Chase 153). (The “Tuba Mirum” in the YouTube clip below begins at :43.)

1721—Hamburg, Germany: Telemann calls for 3 trombones in his vocal work (SATB), Sehet an die Exempel der Alten (Collver 178).

1723—Dresden, Germany: Bohemian musician Jan Dismas Zelenka, composer at the Dresden court, writes Responsoria pro hebdomada sancta, which includes colla parte trombones. An autograph remark at the head of the score indicates, “Tutte le Viole e Tromboni,” while colla parte instructions elsewhere include “[Alto clef] Alto Viola e Alto Trombone; [Tenor clef] Tenore Viola e Tenore Trombone; [Bass clef] Violoncello, Violone, Fagotto e Bass Trombone” (Stockigt, 117).

1723—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 21 utilizes 4 trombones to double vocal lines (mvt 11).

1723—Leipzig, Germany: Bach’s Cantata No. 23 utilizes 3 trombones to double vocal lines (mvt 4).

1723—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 25 utilizes trombones in an independent, non-doubling manner: 3 trombones and a cornett play an independent chorale (mvts 1, 6).

1723—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 64 utilizes 3 trombones to double vocal lines (mvts 1, 2, 4, 8).

1724—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 2 utilizes 4 trombones to double vocal lines (mvts 1, 6).

1724—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 38 utilizes 4 trombones to double vocal lines (mvts 1, 6).

1724—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 96 utilizes one trombone to double vocal lines (mvt 1).

1724—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 101 utilizes 3 trombones to double vocal lines (mvts 1, 7).

1724—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 121 utilizes 3 trombones to double vocal lines (mvts 1, 6).

1724—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 135 utilizes trombone in an independent, non-doubling manner: a single trombone is called upon to play continuo lines (mvt 1).

1725—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 3 utilizes one trombone to double vocal lines (mvt 1).

1725—Leipzig, Germany: Bach’s Cantata No. 4 utilizes 3 trombones to double vocal lines (mvts 2, 3, 8).

1725—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 28 utilizes 3 trombones to double choral parts (mvts 2, 6).

1725—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 68 utilizes 3 trombones to double choral parts (mvt 5).

c. 1730—Salzburg, Austria: Carl Heinrich Biber writes Lytaniae de Venerabili Sacramento, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

c. 1730—Georg Philipp Telemann writes Sinfonia [F major]an instrumental work for 3 trombones, cornett, flute, oboe, viola da gamba, violin, 2 violas, violone, and continuo (Collver 70).

1731—Carl Heinrich’s mass, Missa brevis sanctorum septum dolorum, calls for 3 trombones that double voices (Guion, Trombone 137).

1731—Salzburg, Austria: Carl Heinrich Biber writes Litaniae de Venerabili a 2 Chori, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

1733—Salzburg, Austria: Carl Heinrich Biber writes Litaniae de Venerabili  Sacramento, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

1734—Salzburg, Austria: Matthias Biechteler (c. 1668-1743) composes Lytaniae de venerabili sacramento a 4 voci con stromti, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

1735—Salzburg, Austria: Carl Heinrich Biber writes Litaniae de Venerabili Sacramento, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

1736-37—Leipzig, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 118 (O Jesu Christ, mein’s Lebens Licht), written for the funeral of Joachim Friedrich von Fleming, governor of the city of Leipzig, requires trombones. The specific instrumentation is 2 litui, 1 cornett, and 3 trombones. Trombones are treated independently and do not double the vocal parts (Guion, Trombone 201).

1738—Handel uses trombones in 2 oratorios, Saul (in 4 choruses and 4 instrumental movements) and Israel in Egypt (in 10 choruses). Anthony Baines later calls the trombone parts in Saul the finest in the 18th century (Guion Trombone 144).

1738—Salzburg, Austria: Carl Heinrich Biber writes Litaniae de Venerabili Sacramento, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

c. 1740—Vienna, Austria: Wagenseil composes his Missa Transfige cor meum, which contains the unusual accompaniment of 2 violas or trombones and continuo (Mac Intyre 92).

c. 1740—Dresden, Germany: Bohemian composer Jan Dismas Zelenka, an important contemporary of Bach and Handel, composes his Requiem in C Minor. The piece utilizes 3 trombones, which perform in every movement, often doubling the lower vocal lines (Chase 181). Trombones, which are the only brass in the work, play a particularly prominent role in the “Dies Irae.”

1741—Salzburg, Austria: Matthias Biechteler (c. 1668-1743) writes Lytaniae de venerabili Sacramento, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

1741—In Vienna, Georg Christoph Wagenseil writes Missa Sancti Antonii, which utilizes 2 trombones as obbligato instruments in the “Et incarnates” and “Agnus Dei” (Mac Intyre 671).o

1743—Vienna, Austria: Georg Christoph Wagenseil uses 2 trombones in an obbligato role in his Missa solenne Immaculatae Conceptionis (Mac Intyre 674).

1744—Salzburg, Austria: Carl Heinrich Biber writes Litaniae de Venerabili Sacramento, which calls for 3 trombones (Rosenthal).

c. 1745—Vienna, Austria: Ferdinand Schmidt, Kapellmeister at St. Stephens, composes Missa Primitiarum in C. The “Qui tollis” features 2 trombones in a prominent obbligato role (Mac Intyre 262).

c. 1745—Vienna, Austria: Franz Tuma, in his Missa Tibi soli di Psalm 50, writes expressive obbligato lines for the 2 trombones (Mac Intyre 504).

1753—Vienna, Austria: Georg Reutter writes his Requiem in C Minor, which calls for 2 trombones. In addition to doubling vocal lines, trombones play numerous fanfares and obbligatos. The “Tuba Mirum,” features a virtuosic trombone solo that accompanies the solo for alto voice (Chase 171). It is probably the earliest known composition of its kind to designate the “Tuba mirum” be performed by trombones. The title page bears the inscription “con tromboni Soli” (Wigness 30).

1755—Johann Ernst Eberlin composes the oratorio, Der blutschwitzende Jesus, which utilizes trombone in a soloistic manner (Guion Trombone 137).

c. 1755-85—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Friedrich Doles, a former student of J.S. Bach and successor to Bach at Leipzig, writes 27 works that call for all four sizes of trombones (soprano, alto, tenor, bass) (Carter, Trombone Ensembles of the Moravian).

1757—Georg Reutter composes Per mundi castra velox ad astra, in which he calls for 2 trombones (Collver 155).

c. 1758—Austria: Leopold Hofmann alternates strings with trombones and continuo in his Missa in Honorem Sanctae Theresiae in C (Cameron 83).

1759—Georg Reutter composes several works that use trombone, all of which call for 2 trombones: Ergo plebs fidelis, Succure rex coelorum, and Dei nomen magnificate (Collver 155).

1760—Paris, France: François-Joseph Gossec composes Messe des morts, a Requiem Mass first performed at the Jacobean monastery of the rue St. Jacques, and subsequently performed at least a dozen times in Paris before the Revolution.Three trombones, along with several other wind instruments, appear offstage in the “Tuba mirum” (Guion, Trombone 169; Chase 200). Later, Gossec makes the following comment about the piece: “In the two strophes Tuba mirum and Mors stupebit et natura of the Dies irae, people were frightened by the terrible effect of three trombones with four clarinets, four trumpets, four horns, and eight bassoons hidden in the distance and in an elevated place in the church to announce the last judgment” (Guion, Trombone 170).

1761—Georg Reutter composes Quae festiva nobis lucet and Laudate Deum, both of which call for 2 trombones (Collver 155).

1761—Vienna, Austria: Gluck uses trombone (a single alto trombone) prominently in his ballet Don Juan (Guion, Trombone 229).

1762—Georg Reutter composes several works that use 3 trombones: Ad te levavi animam meamDeo sit lausDe manu peccatorum, and Si observaveris iniquitates (Collver 154).

1765—Berlin, Germany: Christian Carl Rolle’s Das Herr Gott dich loben wir calls for 4 trombones (Collver 156).

1767—Vienna, Austria: Gluck writes for the traditional trio of alto, tenor, and bass to evoke associations of ecclesiastical/supernatural in the oracle scene of his opera, Alceste. The overture features relatively independent trombone parts and 3rd act features prominent obbligato for alto trombone.

1768—Mozart’s Missa solemnis: “Waisenhauskirche Mass” uses trombones prominently, including an unaccompanied trombone trio opening to the “Agnus Dei” (Guion, Trombone 139).

c. 1770—Austria: Grassl composes Missa Pastoralis Ex C, which utilizes 2 trombones in an obbligato role (Mac Intyre 70, 609).

1771—Michael Haydn writes his Requiem, probably in honor of his patron, Archbishop Schrattenbach. First performed in the Salzburg Cathedral, it calls for 3 trombones (Chase 203).

1772—Salzburg, Austria: Joseph Hafeneder, court violinist, composes Litany, which calls for 3 trombones (Eisen, Mozart’s Salzburg Orchestras).

1773—Versailles, France: Jean-Joseph Rodolphe composes Isaménor, one of the first French operas to call for trombone (Guion, Trombone 172).

1774—Paris, France: A trombonist by the name of Braun is hired to play Gluck’s opera, Iphigénie en Aulide (Guion, Trombone 173).

1774—Paris, France: Gluck composes the opera Orphée et Euridice, which calls for 3 trombones. They accompany the opening chorus for the funeral of Euridice, as well as playing in the scene that takes place at the gates of hell. The trombonists for the premiere are Braun, Moser, and Sieber (Guion, Trombone 173).

1778—France: Popular Neapolitan composer Niccoló Piccinni writes the opera Roland, which calls for trombones (Guion, Trombone 175).

1779—Paris, France: Gluck composes the opera Iphigénie en Tauride, which calls for trombones. They perform only while the Eumenides chase Orestes and during a funeral ceremony (Guion, Trombone 173).

1779—Paris, France: Gluck composes the opera Echo et Narcisse, which calls for trombones. They are used for a scene in hell and to accompany a chorus of evil spirits (Guion, Trombone 173).

1780—French opera composer André Ernest Modeste Grétry composes Andromaque, which calls for trombones (Guion, Trombone 175).

1780-1801—F. J. Haydn includes trombones in the following 8 works (according to Hoboken’s catalog): “Ad aras convolate” (1780); Il ritorno di Tobia (1784 revision); L’anima del filosofo, ossia Orfeo ed Euridice (1791); Der Sturm (The Storm) (1792); Die sieben letzten Worte unsers Erlösers am Kreuze (The Seven Last Words of Our Savior on the Cross) (1798); Die Schöpfung (The Creation) (1798); Te Deum (1800); Die Jahreszeiten (The Seasons) (1801) (Guion, Trombone 134). In addition, according to Landon, Haydn uses trombones in large choral works as often as possible. However, because there are no regular trombonists at Eisenstadt, Haydn’s works from this period lack the orchestral doublings and obbligatos common in trombone parts of nearby locations during this time period (Mac Intyre 709).

1781—France: Popular Neapolitan composer Niccoló Piccinni writes the opera Iphigénie en Tauride, which calls for trombone(Guion, Trombone 175).

1782—Sweden: Johann Gottlieb Naumann writes an opera, Cora och Alonza, that includes trombone (Guion, Trombone 165).

1783—French opera composer André Ernest Modeste Grétry composes Alexandre aux Indes, which calls for trombones (Guion, Trombone 175).

c. 1785—Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf, colleague and personal friend of both Mozart and Haydn, writes his Requiem in C minor. The work calls for 3 trombones that double the lower vocal parts (Chase 195).

1785—France: popular Neapolitan composer Niccoló Piccinni writes the opera Pénélope, which calls for trombones (Guion, Trombone 175).

1787—Sweden: Johann Christian Friedrich Haeffner writes an opera, Electra, that calls for trombone (Guion, Trombone 165).

1787—Vienna, Austria: Mozart employs trombones in Don Giovanni, particularly for ecclesiastical/supernatural associations. Trombones are left out of the score until Commendatore’s statue comes to life.

1787—Paris, France: Gluck’s last composition, “De Profundis,” utilizes 3 trombones.

1787—England: Samuel Arnold uses 4 trombones in his oratorio, Redemption (Guion, Trombone 147).

1787—France: Antonio Salieri composes the opera Tarare, which calls for trombones (Guion, Trombone 175).

1787/8—Vienna, Austria: the Burgtheater employs 3 trombones for 7 performances of Salieri’s Axur, re d’Ormus (Edge).

1788—France: Luigi Cherubini composes Demophoon, an opera that utilizes trombone (Guion, Trombone 175). He later writes numerous other operas with trombones, including Lodoiska (1791), L ‘hotellerie portugaise (1798), Les deux journées (1800) Epicure (1800), Anacréon (1803), and Achille a Scyros (1804) (Guion, Trombone 192).

1788—Vienna, Austria: Antonio Salieri uses trombones in his Mass in D to double alto and tenor vocal lines (Cameron 83).

1789—Mozart includes trombones in his orchestration of Handel’s Messiah.

1789—England: Samuel Arnold uses 4 trombones in his oratorio, The Triumph of Truth (Guion, Trombone 147).

c. 1791—Ignaz Pleyel writes several orchestral works that include trombone: Symphony in B-flat, Symphony in e-flat, and Symphony in A(Guion, Trombone 268).

c. 1791—Haydn calls for 2 trombones in L’anima del filosofo (Spitzer Table 1.1).

1791—Vienna, Austria: Mozart employs trombones prominently in Magic Flute, particularly for ecclesiastical/supernatural associations.

1791—Vienna, Austria: Mozart writes his Requiem, which includes the famous “Tuba Mirum” solo. The first 18 measures are composed by Mozart; the following portion is added later by Süssmayr (Guion, Trombone 139).

1791—St. Petersburg, Russia: Nachal’noe upravlenie Olega, an opera composed by Giuseppe Sarti, Carlo Canobbio, and Vasily Pashkeevich, is published. It includes 2 trombones (Guion, Trombone 164).

1791—St. Petersburg, Russia: Carlo Canobbio writes a military march for 4 trumpets, trombone, and triangle (Tarr, East Meets West 23).

1791-1803—Paris, France: Étienne Méhul writes at least 12 operas that call for trombone (Guion, Trombone 193).

1792—Sweden: Joseph Martin Kraus writes Begravningskantat over Gustav III, which includes trombone (Guion, Trombone 165).

1792—Pleyel’s Sinfonia concertante in F Major (Ben 113), which includes trombone, receives excellent reviews for its London premiere. It is not published until 1794 (Guion, Trombone 149, 268).

1793—Pleyel writes the French Revolution orchestral piece, La Révolution du 10 aout 1792, ou Le tocsin allégorique, which requires trombone (Guion, Trombone 187).

1793—Paris, France: François Joseph Gossec’s opera La triomphe de la république calls for trombone (Guion, Trombone 192).

1795—Paris, France: François Joseph Gossec writes the French Revolution orchestral piece Serment républicaine, which calls for trombone (Guion, Trombone 187).

1796—Paris, France: François Joseph Gossec writes a French Revolution orchestral piece called Hymne guerrier, which requires trombone (Guion, Trombone 187).

1796—Dresden, Germany: Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf calls for 3 trombones in his opera Ugolino (Guion, Trombone 160).

1798—London, England: Composer Michael Kelly uses trombone in his opera Blue Beard (Guion, Trombone 147).

1799—London, England: Composer Michael Kelly calls for trombone in the incidental music to Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s play, Pizzaro (Guion, Trombone 147).

1800—Paris, France: Etienne Nicolas Méhul writes a French Revolution orchestral piece called Chant nationale du 14 juillet 1800, which requires trombone (Guion, Trombone 187).