Early Trombone Literature

EARLY TROMBONE LITERATURE (pre-1800)

A PRELIMINARY LIST

Bold=I/we own

TROMBONE DUETS

c. 1500—Antoine Brumel, Benedictus qui venit “fuga ex una.” In Woof, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1533—In Wittenberg, Germany, a set of Georg Rhau’s part books, Symphoniae Jucundae (an anthology of motets), contains a manuscript note in one of the books saying certain works are “good on trombone etc.” Included in Adam Woolf’s Sackbut Solutions are 2 duets by Georg Rhau (Wittenberg 1545) that would fall within the spirit of that manuscript note. I own. 

1545—Munich: Ludwig Senfl, Ego ipse consolabor vos. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1558—Venice: Orlando de Lassus, Specie tua et pulchritudine tua. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1598—Venice: Giovanni Giacomo Gastoldi, No. 20. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1598—Venice: Giovanni Giacomo Gastoldi, No. 19. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1598—Venice: Giovanni Paolo Cima, No. 34. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1598—Venice: Giovanni Dominico Rognoni, Canon in contrary motion. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1604—Munich: Orlando de Lassus, Ricercar No. 21. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1604—Munich: Orlando de Lassus, Justi Tulerunt Spolia. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1604—Munich: Orlando de Lassus, Sicut Rosa. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1609—Antwerp: Anonymous, O Maria mater pia. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1619—London: Thomas Morley, Fantasia “La Girandola.” In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1619—London: Thomas Morley, Lo, here another Love. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1619—London: Thomas Morley, Go ye my canzonets. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1619—London: Thomas Morley, Fire & Lightning. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1620—Venice: Giovanni Battista Riccio, Currebant duo. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1625—Venice: Adriano Banchieri, Concerto di dui Angioletti in Dialogo. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1629—Nuremberg, Germany: Numerous works from Biagio Marini’s instrumental collection, Sonate, sinfonie, canzoni, passemezzi…, specify trombone, including Sonata octava (2 bassoons or bass trombones, continuo), Sonata nona (2 bassoons or bass trombones, continuo) (Collver 60; Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation; Winkler 301). For additional works from the same collection, see the following categories, below: “Trombone Quartets,” and “Trombone and Violin(s),” and “Trombone with Various Other Ensembles.”

1650—Naples: Andrea Falconieri, Passacalle. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1662—London: Richard Dering, Duo Seraphim. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

1657—Rome: Giuseppe Giamberti, XXI. In Woolf, Duo Seraphim. HBLL has.

 

TROMBONE TRIOS

1612—In Bologna, Italy, Adriano Banchieri composes his Moderna armonia di canzoni alla francese. In the foreword, Banchieri suggests trombone consort as one of many options for performing the work (Collver 42). Canzone for 3 trombones—Performance edition available (Tezak).

1697—Daniel Speer’s 2 sonatas for 3 trombones and continuo are published in the second edition of his Grundrichtiger Unterricht der musikalischen Kunst oder Vierfaches musikalisches Kleeblatt. I own Sonata 1 (in Woolf, Sackbut Solutions).

c. 1795—François René Gebauer writes Six Trios (from 50 Leçons pour les Trombonne Basse, Alto & Tenor). Performance edition available (Editions Musicales)
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TROMBONE QUARTETS

1612—In Bologna, Italy, Adriano Banchieri composes his Moderna armonia di canzoni alla francese. In the foreword, Banchieri suggests trombone consort as one of many options for performing the work (Collver 42). L’Ardina for 4 trombones—Performance edition available (Cimmaron).

1621—In Munich, Germany, at the Bavarian court, cornettist and trombonist Giulio Martino Cesare writes a collection of 28 instrumental and vocal works called Musicali Melodie. It includes “La Bavara,” for 4 trombones (Whitwell Catalog Baroque 122; Collver 47). We own

1636—In Venice, Biagio Marini, violinist at St. Mark’s, writes Canzon (from Sonate, symphonie) for 4 trombones and continuo. Performance edition available (Ens Pub/Howard Weiner).

1685—Daniel Speer writes Sonata (from Neu-gebachene Taffel-Schnitz) for 4 trombones and continuo (Speer). We own

 

TROMBONE CHOIR (5 or MORE)

1568—In Munich, Germany, during a banquet celebrating the marriage of Wilhelm V to Renata of Lorraine, trombone participates in numerous pieces, including a madrigal by Alessandro Striggio for 6 trombones (one of which plays an octave lower than usual) (Haar 251, 253).

1608—In Venice, Tiburtio Massaino, maestro di cappella at Lodi from 1600 to 1608, writes for 8 trombones and continuo in Canzon 33 per 8 Tromboni from Canzoni per sonare con ogni sorte di stromenti (Massaino). We own

 

SOLOS

1620—Milan, Italy: Francesco Rognoni, Divisions on Palestrina’s Pulchra es.

1620—Milan, Italy: Francesco Rognoni’s improvisational treatise, Selva di varii passaggi, includes a setting of Lassus’s song, Susanne un jour. Marked “Modo di passegiar il violone over trombone alla bastarda,” it features rapid technical passages to be played on either violone or trombone (Baines, Brass 114; Guion, Short History; Herbert, Trombone 87).

1621—At the Bavarian court in Munich, cornettist and trombonist Giulio Martino Cesare writes a collection of 28 instrumental and vocal works called Musicali Melodie. It includes “La Hieronyma,” the earliest known solo work to specify trombone; the subtitle specifies “for trombone or viola” (Whitwell Catalog Baroque 122; Collver 47). I own.

c. 1669—In Bohemia, an anonymous sonata for trombone and continuo is written by a monk in St. Thomas monastery. It is considered the earliest known solo composition specified solely for the trombone. I own

c. 1755—In Vienna, Georg Wagenseil, composer at the Imperial Court, writes Concerto for alto trombone (Wigness 19). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list). I own

1762—In Salzburg, Leopold Mozart writes Concerto for alto trombone or viola (part of a larger Serenata). I own

c. 1763—In Salzburg, Michael Haydn composes Larghetto for alto trombone as part of his incomplete Sinfonia No. 4. The full title for the trombone movement is “Larghetto a Trombone Concerto” (Guion 140). It is possibly written for Salzburg trombonist Thomas Gschlatt (Donley Thomas 8). I own

1764—In Salzburg, Michael Haydn writes Concerto for alto trombone (part of larger Divertimento). I own

1767—In Salzburg, Michael Haydn writes Concertino in D, a double-concerto for alto trombone, horn, and orchestra (Haydn). I own

1769—In Vienna, Johann Georg Albrechtsberger writes Concerto for alto trombone (Wigness 22). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list). I own

 

VOCAL SOLO or DUO W/TROMBONE

1602—Lodovico da Viadana’s Cento concerti ecclesiastici includes O bone Jesu, scored for tenor voice and 2 trombones (Roche 54).

1606—In Italy, Leoni’s Sacri fiori includes two works that feature trombone: In te Domine speravi for 2 alto voices and two trombones, and Deus exaudi for 2 soprano voices, trombone, and violetta (Kurtzman, Monteverdi Vespers, 121).

1609—In Italy, a number of Girolamo Giacobbi’s psalms are scored for coro ordinario (SATB) and coro grave (alto voice with 3 trombones) (Roche 120).

1609—In Italy, Lodovico da Viadana’s Cento concerti III includes Repleatur, a concertato work for alto voice, tenor voice, and 2 trombones. It also includes Benedicam Dominum in omni tempore for 2 tenor voices and 2 trombones (Roche 82; Kurtzman, Monteverdi Vespers 123).

1613—In Mantua, Italy, Amante Franzoni includes “Concerto a cinque” for 4 trombones and tenor voice, as well as Sancta Maria ora pro nobis for 4 trombones and soprano voice, in the collection Appartato Musicale di Messa (Kurtzman, Monteverdi Vespers 32).

1611—In Italy, Arcangelo Borsaro’s Novo giardino de concerti specifies optional substitution of trombones for the lower 2 voices in each of its 20 motets (Kurtzman, Monteverdi Vespers, 123).

1610—In Bologna, Italy, Adriano Banchieri writes a collection of 21 motets. Following the last page of music, the composer offers a table of several ways the motets may be performed; among the ways are “Trombone & Violino Stromenti” and “Basso Trombone & Soprano voce” (Collver 42).

1620—In Italy, Ercole Porta’s Corda Deo dabimus, contained in the collection Sacro convito, is scored for soprano voice, alto voice, and 3 trombones. Roche coins the phrase “trombone motet” for this type of piece, a genre that culminates in Schütz’s Absalom fili mi (1629) (Roche 82).

1621—Johann Schein’s, Musica Boscareccia, which contains music of 3 melody lines, specifies the following for the third line: “bass voice or trombone or bassoon or violone” (Dart 128).

1621—At the Bavarian court in Munich, cornettist and trombonist Giulio Martino Cesare writes a collection of 28 instrumental and vocal works called Musicali Melodie. It includes a motet for one voice and 3 trombones (Dickey Cornett and Sackbut 107).

1629—Heinrich Schütz’s collection of works, Symphoniae Sacrae, utilizes trombone extensively, drawing on both the German church tower tradition and Italian polychoral methods. Noteworthy examples include “Fili mi, Absalon” (bass voice accompanied by 4 trombones and organ), “Attendite, popule meus” (bass voice accompanied by 4 trombones and organ), and “Veni, dilecte mi” (3 solo voices accompanied by 3 trombones) (Beulow 274; Whitwell Catalog Baroque 144). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list—both “Fili mi” and “Attendite”). Performance edition available (Musica Rara, Robert King)

c. 1650—Andreas Hammerschmidt writes Gott sei, mir gnädig, for bass voice and 3 trombones. Performance edition available (Kagarice Brass Ed)

1658—Johann Rudolf Ahle writes “Herr, nun läßt Du Deinen Diener,” from Neu-gepflantzten Thüringischen Lust-Gartens Ander Theil, for bass voice, four trombones, and continuo (Ahle). Performance edition available (Howard Weiner edition, Kagarice Brass Ed.)

1681—Rupert Ignaz Mayr, “Beati Omnes,” from Sacri Concentus (Regensburg, 1681), for alto (or high tenor) voice, trombone (or viola), and continuo. Performance edition available (Howard Weiner edition, Kagarice Brass Ed.)

1705—Marc’ Antonio Ziani writes “Virgo, Virgo prius” from Alma Redemptoris Mater for alto voice, alto trombone, and continuo (Ziani). Performance edition available (Modern Editions, Virgo). I own

1705—Marc’ Antonio Ziani writes the solo motet Alma Redemptoris Mater. Scored for 2 trombones, alto voice, bassoon, and continuo, it includes numerous solo passages for trombone (Wigness 26; Ziani). Performance edition available (Virgo). I own

1705—Joseph I composes the aria “Alme Ingrate.” Scored for trombone, soprano voice, and organ, it treats trombone in a virtuosic manner (Wigness 27-28). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list). Performance edition available (Virgo)

1717—In Vienna, Antonio Caldara writes the aria “Quell’amor” (from Santa Ferma) for soprano voice, 2 trombones, and continuo (Caldara; Carter, Trombone Obbligatos). Performance edition available (Warwick). I own

c. 1728—Johann Joseph Fux composes the antiphon Alma Redemptoris for soprano voice and trombone. It contains one of the longest and most elaborate solos in a vocal work in the early trombone literature. The full score calls for soprano voice, alto trombone, strings, and continuo (Wigness 28; Fux). Performance edition available (Babcock/Kagarice Brass Ed). I own

1730—In Vienna, Antonio Caldara writes “Dovunque il Guardo Giro” (from La Passione di Gesu Christo Signor Nostro) for soprano voice, alto trombone, and keyboard (Caldara). Performance edition available (Warwick). I own

1734—In Vienna, George Reutter’s Missa Sancti Caroli includes a solo movement, “Gratias agimus tibi,” for alto voice, alto trombone, and continuo (Guion Trombone 131; Reutter). Performance edition available (Virgo). I own

c. 1740—In Vienna, Franz Tuma composes Missa in chordis et organo in G. The “Gratias” consists of solo alto voice, 2 trombones playing soloistic obbligato parts, and continuo (Mac Intyre 292).

1741—In Vienna, Franz Tuma writes Inno Per Il Festo di St. Teresia for alto voice, alto trombone, strings, and continuo (Tuma). Performance edition available (Modern Editions). I own

1742—In Vienna, Franz Tuma writes “Almo Factori” from Motetto de Tempori for alto voice, alto trombone, and continuo (Tuma). Performance edition available (Modern Editions). I own

c. 1750—Johann Zechner writes “Aria Soemnus” from Salus for alto trombone, alto voice, and continuo (Zechner). Performance edition available (Virgo). I own

c. 1750—In Salzburg, Ernst Eberlin writes “Fleiss o heisser Tränenbach” (from Der verurteilte Jesus) for alto trombone, soprano voice, and strings (Eberlin). Performance edition available (Virgo). I own

c. 1750—In Salzburg, Ernst Eberlin writes “Menschen sagt Was ist das leben” (from Der verlorene sohn) for alto trombone, tenor voice, and orchetra (Eberlin). Performance edition available (Virgo). I own

c. 1760—Johann Georg Albrechtsberger writes Aria Passione Domine for alto voice, alto trombone, strings, and continuo (Albrechtsberger). Performance edition available (Virgo). I own

c. 1760—In Salzburg, Leopold Mozart writes “Agnus Dei” (from Lauretanische Litanei) for alto trombone, alto voice, and orchestra (Mozart). Performance edition available (Virgo). I own

c. 1760—In Vienna, Georg Christoph Wagenseil writes “Memoriam” (from Confitebor) for alto trombone, alto voice, and orchestra (Wagenseil). Performance edition available (Virgo). I own

1761—In Vienna, Marianne von Martínez writes Terza Messa. In the “Benedictus” movement, 2 solo trombones accompany the tenor soloist (Mac Intyre 81, 631).

1767—In Salzburg, the skeptical Archbishop locks 11-year-old Mozart in a room by himself to see if he can really compose without help from his father. Mozart writes the cantata Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots, K 35, which uses solo alto trombone in Christ’s aria, “Jener Donnerworte Kraft” (for tenor voice, alto trombone, and strings). Performance edition available (Modern Editions, Virgo)

 

TROMBONE AND VIOLIN(S)

1615—Arcangelo Borsaro writes for 2 cornettos (or violins), trombone, and organ in his La Matusaleme a tre from Odarati fiori (Collver 45).

1620—Venice, Italy: Giovanni Battista Riccio calls for trombone in a collection of canzoni, Il terzo libro delle divine lodi musicali (Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation). Specific examples include Canzon La Fineta, a 2-part work for trombone and violin; Canzon La Savoldi, a 2-part work for trombone and violin; Canzon La Picchi, a 2-part work for trombone and violin; Canzon La Rubina, a 3-part work for 2 violins or cornetts and trombone, and Canzon La Moceniga, a 3-part work for 2 violins and 2 trombones (Winkler 300; Collver 65).

1620—Italy: Ercole Porta scores for duo of violin and trombone in L’Animosa, from the composer’s collection, Sacro convito.

1620—Italy: Ercole Porta calls for 2 violins and 3 trombones in 3 separate pieces: Consolamini, Salve Mater pia, and Mass. The pieces come from the composer’s collection, Sacro convito.

1617—Biagio Marini’s Affetti musicali includes La Giustiniana, which is scored for 2 violins or cornetts, trombone, and continuo; La Foscarina, which is scored for 2 violins or cornetts, trombone, and continuo; La Hiacintina, which is scored for violin or cornett, trombone, and continuo; and La Marina, which is scored for violin or cornett, 2 trombones, and continuo (Collver 59).

1621—Dario Castello composes numerous chamber compositions with parts for 1 or 2 trombones, particularly in his Quinta Sonata from Book I. In these works, the trombone is the only instrument specifically named (Wigness 9). Referring to the virtuosic technical demands of the trombone parts in these sonatas, the second edition of Book 1 includes the following note: “He says, in short, that they are the consequence of the new style everyone is observing and hopes that the players will not give up on the first try” (Wigness 10).

1621—Stefano Bernardi’s 7 Canzonas a 3 from Madrigaletti a due et a tre voci specify the following for the bottom musical line: theorbo or bassoon or trombone. The other 2 voices are to be played by either 2 cornetts or 2 violins (Collver 43).

1621—At the Bavarian court in Munich, cornettist and trombonist Giulio Martino Cesare writes a collection of 28 instrumental and vocal works called Musicali Melodie. It includes “La Costanza,” for 2 cornetts (or violins) and trombone, “La Famosa,” for 2 cornetts (or violins) and trombone, and “La Gioia,” for 2 cornetts (or violins) and trombone (Whitwell Catalog Baroque 122; Collver 47).

1622—Giacinto Bondioli (1596-1636) includes 7 canzoni in his collection, Soavi fiori colti, that call for cornetto (or violin), trombone (or bassoon), and organ (Collver 44).

1622—Venice, Italy: By this date, P.A. Mariani writes Canzon Per il Deo Gratias, a 2-part work for violin and trombone (Winkler 300).

1662—Germany: Andreas Oswald (also Uswalt or Ußwaldt) (1634-1665) writes numerous works that are included in the collection, Partiturbuch Ludwig. Among them is Sonata a 2 in a minor for violin, trombone or viol, and continuo.

1625—Venice, Italy: Giovanni Picchi calls for trombone frequently in his collection of sonatas and canzoni titled Canzoni da sonar con ogni sorte d’istromenti. Specifically, Canzon Terza is scored for violin and trombone, Sonata Sesta is scored for violin and trombone, Canzon Settima is scored for 2 violins and trombone, Canzon Ottavais scored for 2 violins and trombone, Canzon Decima is scored for 2 flutes and 2 trombones, Canzon Undecima is scored for 2 cornetts and 2 trombones, Canzon Duodecima is scored for 2 violins and 2 trombones, Canzon Decima Terza is scored for 2 cornetts and 2 trombones, Canzon Decima Quarta is scored for 2 violins or cornetts and 4 trombones, Canzon Decima Quinta is scored for 2 violins and 4 trombones, and Sonata Decima Sesta is scored for 2 violins, 2 flutes, trombone, and bassoon (Winkler 301; Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation; Picchi, Canzoni da sonar; Collver 64).

1629—Nuremberg, Germany: Numerous works from Biagio Marini’s instrumental collection, Sonate, sinfonie, canzoni, passemezzi…, specify trombone, including Canzone quarta a 4 (2 violins or cornetts, 2 trombones ad lib, basso continuo), Canzon octava (2 violins, 4 trombones), Canzone decima a 6 (2 violins or cornetts, 4 violas or trombones, basso continuo), and Sonata per l’Organo (violin or cornett, trombone ad lib, organ) (Collver 60; Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation; Winkler 301). For additional works from the same collection, see “Trombone Duets,” Trombone Quartets,” and “Trombone with Various Other Ensembles.”

1636—Giovanni Battista Buonamente uses trombones prominently in his collection, Sonate et canzoni a due, tre, quattro, cinque et a sei voci. Highlights include Canzon a 5 for 2 cornetts or violins, 3 trombones, and continuo; Sonata a 5 for violin, cornett, 3 trombones, and continuo; Sonata a 6 for violin, cornett, 3 trombones, theorbo, and continuo; and Sonata a 6 for 2 cornetts or violins, 4 trombones, and continuo (Collver 46). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list).

c. 1650—Antonio Bertali writes 6 Sonate a 6, which call for “2 violini o cornetti e 3 viole o tromboni col basso per l’organo” (Bertali, 13 sonate manoscritte). We own (HBLL)

c. 1650—Biagio Marini writes Sonata Duodecima a 2, Op. 8, No. 12, for trombone, violin, and continuo. (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list). Performance edition available (Kagarice Brass Ed). HBLL has (online copy).

1662—Germany: Johann Michael Nicolai’s Sonata a 2 in G for violin, trombone, and continuo is included in the Partiturbuch Ludwig.

c. 1730—Johann Joseph Fux, Sonata à 3 (E 68) for trombone, 2 violins, and basso continuo. Performance edition available (Ensemble Pub)

 

TROMBONE-CORNETTO QUINTET

1621—London, England: John Adson, a London wait, composes Courtly Masquing Ayres composed to 5 and 6 Parts for Violins, Consorts, and Cornets. Three of the 5-part works (airs 19, 20, and 21) are specifically scored for “Cornets and Sagbuts” (Collver 40; Boyd 163; Whitwell, Catalog Baroque 12).

1641—Johann Vierdanck (c.1605-1646) calls for trombone in several works contained in the collection Erster Theil newer Pavanen, Gagliarden, Balletten und Correnten, including Sonata Worin die Melodia des Liedes, a sonata for 2 cornetts and 3 trombones (Collver 72).

1661—England: Matthew Locke (c. 1621-1677) composes Music for his Majesty’s Sagbutts and Cornetts, possibly for the coronation of Charles II. The music is a collection of pieces for 2 cornetts and 3 trombones (Herbert, Sackbut 79; Collver 58).

1670—Germany: Johann Christoph Pezel writes Hora decima musicorum Lipsiensium, a collection containing 40 sonatas for 2 cornetts and 3 trombones. A later edition, published in 1674, gives the possibility of alternative strings in place of cornetts and trombone. Like his Fünff-stimmigte blasende Music collection, the music is intended for the Stadtpfeifer, or town musicians (Collver 63).

1685—Germany: Johann Christoph Pezel writes Fünff-stimmigte blasende Music, a set of 76 dance pieces for 2 cornetts and 3 trombones. Like his Hora Decima collection, it is intended for the Stadtpfeifer, or town musicians (Collver 63).

1685—Germany: Daniel Speer, a former Stadtpfeifer, writes Recens fabricatus labor, oder neugebachene Taffel-Schnitz, which includes two sonatas that call for 2 cornetts, 3 trombones, and continuo (Collver 68).

1688—Germany: Daniel Speer’s collection, Musicalisch-Türckischer Eulen-Spiegel, includes three sonatas that specify 2 cornetts and 3 trombones (25, 29, and 30) (Collver 69).

 

TROMBONE WITH VARIOUS OTHER ENSEMBLES

1558—In Germany, Krüger publishes a volume of vocal chorales with accompaniments of organ and 4 to 6 trombones (Daubeny 95).

1597—In Venice, Giovanni Gabrieli writes Sonata pian e forte. One of the earliest large-ensemble works to indicate specific instrumentation and dynamics, it utilizes trombones extensively. It is an 8-part canzona for two choirs; the first choir calls for 3 trombones and a cornetto, the second for 3 trombones and a violin. Many additional Gabrieli works feature trombone prominently, ranging from 4-part canzonas (1 cornett and 3 trombones) to 22-part canzonas. Canzona No. 16 (Canzon quarti toni a 15) calls for 12 trombones, 2 cornettos, and 1 violin. A large body of Gabrieli’s concerted music for voices with instruments also features trombone prominently; Quem vidistis pastores a 14, for example, utilizes 3 trombones, and Surrexit Christus a 16 calls for 4 trombones. According to musicologist David Schulenberg, “the most important instruments in this music [Venetian polychoral works]—after the organ, which furnished the basso continuo—were the cornetto and the sackbut.” (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list).

1608—Venice, Italy: Raverii’s 1608 collection, Canzoni per Sonare con ogni sorte di stromenti, includes Claudio Merulo’s Canzon vigesimaterza a 5 and Canzon decimaottava a 5.

1610—In Italy, Claudo Monteverdi composes Vespers, which uses trombones prominently. In 3 of the collection’s compositions, Domine ad Adjuvandum, Sonata Sopra Sancta Maria Ora Pro Nobis, and Magnificat a Sette Voci, Monteverdi calls for specific obbligato instruments, including trombone multiple times (Kurtzman, Monteverdi Vespers, 412). In Sonata sopra Sancta Maria, not only does Monteverdi call for trombone, but he suggests the instrument as a substitute for the vivola da brazzo part (Bonta Violone 69). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list).

1610—Giovanni Paolo Cima specifies trombone in works from his collection Concerti ecclesiastici, including Sonata (trombone or violone) and Cappriccio d’Andrea Cima a 4 (1 trombone) (Collver 47).

1610—Italy: Lodovico Viadana, Sinfonia “La Bergamasca” for 8 instruments, from Sinfonie musicali.

1613—Italy: Ercole Porta’s Canzona 33, a 2-part work, calls for cornett and trombone. Canzona 34, a 3-part work, calls for 2 cornetts or violins and one trombone (Winkler 299). His La Luchina, canzon in risposta, from Vaga Ghirlanda di soavi, calls for violin, cornett, 2 trombones, and basso continuo (Collver 65).

1615—In Venice, Giovanni Gabrieli’s collection, Canzone e Sonate, is published 3 years after his death. Trombone is featured prominently. For example, Sonata XVIII a 14 calls for 10 trombones (Collver 51).

1615—In Venice, Giovanni Gabrieli’s collection, Symponiae Sacrae II, is published 3 years after his death. Trombone is featured prominently. For example, Jubilate Deo is scored for alto voice, tenor voice, 5 trombones, 2 cornetts, and bassoon. Surrexit Christus is scored for alto voice, tenor voice, bass voice, 4 trombones, 2 cornetts, and 2 violins, and features extended instrumental sections (Roche 115).

1618—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630) writes Das Te Deum Laudamus, a polychoral vocal work that calls for 2 trombones in one choir and 1 trombone in another (Collver 163).

1618/19—Giovanni Priuli, Canzon terza a 6 (due cornetti e viola, due tromboni e fagotto).

1618/19—Giovanni Priuli, Canzon quarta a 6 (3 violini, 3 tromboni).

1619—Polyhymnia caduceatrix et panegyrica, a collection by Praetorius of compositions based on Lutheran hymns, includes vater unser im Himmelreich, a hymn accompanied by contrasting groups of 4-part strings and 4-part trombones (Leaver 281).

1619—In Dresden, Germany, Heinrich Schütz publishes Psalmen Davids, his first major collection of German church works. Many of the works include prominent trombone parts and obbligato roles (Smallman 35, 37, 42). Herr unser Herrscher and Zion spricht, der Herr hat mich Verlassen both call for 4 trombones, for example, while Ist nicht Ephraim mein theurer Sohn and Wol dem, der den Herren fürchtet call for 3 trombones (Collver 168). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list).

c. 1620—Giovanni Valentini calls for 2 cornetti and 2 trombones in Canzon a 4.

1620—In Italy, Ercole Porta’s Mass is scored for five-part choir, 3 trombones, and 2 violins (Roche 140).

1620—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Hermann Schein writes Lyrica Davidica, a vocal work that calls for trombone (Collver 163).

1621—Hamburg, Germany: Samuel Scheidt, Ludi Musici.

1621—At the Bavarian court in Munich, cornettist and trombonist Giulio Martino Cesare writes a collection of 28 instrumental and vocal works called Musicali Melodie. It includes “La Augustana,” for cornett and trombone, “La Costanza,” for 2 cornetts (or violins) and trombone, “La Famosa,” for 2 cornetts (or violins) and trombone, “La Gioia,” for 2 cornetts (or violins) and trombone, “La Monachina,” for 3 cornetts and trombone, “La Fenice,” for 2 cornetts and 2 trombones, and “La Vittoria,” for 3 cornetts and 3 trombones (Whitwell Catalog Baroque 122; Collver 47).

1621—At the Habsburg Court in Vienna, Giovanni Valentini’s motet, “Messa, Magnificat et Iubilate Deo,” calls for 2 trombones with optional string substitutions, labeled “Alto Trombone o Violetta primo” and “Viola o trombone secondo” (Saunders).

1621—Giovanni Valentini writes Sonate a 4 for violin, trumpet, bassoon, trombone, and basso continuo. Performance edition available.

1623—In Casalmaggiore, Lombardy, Ignazio Donati’s psalm collection, Salmi boscarecci, features instrumental accompaniment of 3 trombones and 3 violins. The composer instructs, “If one wishes to use the last six books for both voices and instruments, it should be noted that where it says solo, only the singer should sing, and where it says trombone or violin, only the instrument should play; in passages marked tutti, they both sing and play in unison” (Roche 132).

1623—In his collection of grand concertos in 6 parts titled Salmi boscarecci, Ignatio Donati enumerates a large variety of performance arrangements, including trombone playing with violin and trombone playing in unison with voice (Buelow History 49).

1624—In Italy, a Mass by Giovanni Priuli includes ornate parts for trombone, cornett, and violin (Roche 140).

1624—Stefano Bernardi calls for 4 trombones in Sonata ottava a 12 from Il terzo libro de madrigali (Collver 43).

c. 1625—In Padua, Italy, Leandro Gallerano, maestro at the Basilica del Santo, uses 2 violins and a trombone as obbligato instruments in a hymn setting in honor of St. Anthony (Roche 22).

1625—Venice, Italy: Giovanni Picchi calls for trombone frequently in his collection of sonatas and canzoni titled Canzoni da sonar don ogni sorte d’Instrumenti. Specifically, Canzon Terza is scored for violin and trombone, Sonata Sesta is scored for violin and trombone, Canzon Settimais scored for 2 violins and trombone, Canzon Ottavais scored for 2 violins and trombone, Canzon Decima is scored for 2 flutes and 2 trombones, Canzon Undecima is scored for 2 cornetts and 2 trombones, Canzon Duodecima is scored for 2 violins and 2 trombones, Canzon Decima Terza is scored for 2 cornetts and 2 trombones, Canzon Decima Quarta is scored for 2 violins or cornetts and 4 trombones, Canzon Decima Quinta is scored for 2 violins and 4 trombones, and Sonata Decima Sesta is scored for 2 violins, 2 flutes, trombone, and bassoon (Winkler 301; Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation; Picchi, Canzoni da sonar).

1625—In Italy, Francesca Caccini’s ballet-opera La liberazione di Ruggiero, is performed to honor a visiting Polish prince (Guion Short History). Caccini uses 4 trombones, 4 viols, a positive organ, and keyboard instruments to depict an infernal scene (Weaver).

1626—In Leipzig, Germany, Johann Hermann Schein, director of music at the Thomaskirche, publishes the collection Opella nova, ander Theil, geistlicher Concerten. The collection features numerous chamber motets in 4 or 5 parts that include trombone: “O Maria, gebenedeiet bist du” (“trombone o fagotto”), “Siehe, das ist mein Knecht” (“fagot o trombone”), “Also heilig ist der Tag” (1 trombone), “Uns ist ein Kind geboren” (1 trombone), “Selig sind, die da geistlich arm sind” (3 trombones), “Vater unser, der du bist im Himmel” (2 trombones), “Mach dich auf, werde Licht,” (3 trombones), and Nun ist das Heil und die Kraft (3 trombones) (Hadden 128; Collver 163). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list).

1626—Leipzig, Germany: Johann Hermann Schein, Ich will schweigen, a funeral lament. Trombone is not specified but is historically very plausible as a replacement for a vocal part.

1629—Nuremberg, Germany: Numerous works from Biagio Marini’s instrumental collection, Sonate, sinfonie, canzoni, passemezzi…, specify trombone: Sinfonia terza (2 cornetts, trombone, basso continuo), Sinfonia quarta (2 cornetts, trombone, basso continuo), Canzone quarta a 4 (2 violins or cornetts, 2 trombones ad lib, basso continuo), Canzone sesta a 4 (2 cornetts, 2 trombones ad lib, basso continuo), Canzon septima (2 cornetts, basso ad lib, 3 trombones), Canzon nona (2 violins, viola, 3 trombones), and Sonata per l’Organo (violin or cornett, trombone ad lib, organ) (Collver 60; Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation; Winkler 301). For additional works from the collection see the following categories, above: “Trombone Quartets,” and “Trombone(s) and Violin.”

1629—In Bergamo, Italy, Alessandro Grandi’s O beate Benedicte from the Motetti con sinfonie III is scored for soprano voice, tenor voice, trombone, and violin (Roche 86).

1630—In Bergamo, Italy, Alessandro Grandi utilitzes trombone extensively in the collection, Raccolta Terza di Leonardo Simonetti. For example, Sinfonia avanti il Gloria is written for cornetto, trombone, and continuo. Several other works in the collection call for trombone prominently as well (Collver 118).

1630—In Venice, Alessandro Grandi’s collection of large-scale church works, Raccolta terza, is published posthumously. It contains numerous works that use trombones prominently. For example, Nisi Dominus is scored for SATT soloists, SATB ripieno, and 3 trombones. The trombones play in both tuttis and solos (Roche 127). In Messa concertata, trombones are featured among several different solo groupings (Roche 143).

1636—Giovanni Battista Buonamente uses trombones prominently in his collection, Sonate et canzoni a due, tre, quattro, cinque et a sei voci. Highlights include Canzon a 5 for 2 cornetts or violins, 3 trombones, and continuo; Sonata a 5 for violin, cornett, 3 trombones, and continuo; Sonata a 6 for violin, cornett, 3 trombones, theorbo, and continuo; and Sonata a 6 for 2 cornetts or violins, 4 trombones, and continuo (Collver 46). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list).

1637—In Leipzig, Germany, Tobias Michael, director of music at the Thomaskirche, publishes Musicalischer Seelen-Lust ander Theil. A collection of works for voice and a variety of instruments, it contains numerous works that include trombone: “Wo der Herr nicht das Haus bauet” (2 trombones), “Wie lieblich sind auff den Bergen” (“trombone grosso”), “Gott schweige doch nicht also” (single trombone) (Hadden 130).

1641—Johann Vierdanck (c.1605-1646) calls for trombone in several works contained in the collection Erster Theil newer Pavanen, Gagliarden, Balletten und Correnten, including two different sonatas for cornetto and 3 trombones (No. 27 and No. 28) (Collver 72).

1641—In Italy, Monteverdi’s setting of “Beatus vir” (Psalm 111) requires 3 viole da brazzo or trombones (Tim Carter 232). (Royal College of Music sackbut rep list).

1643—Johann Erasmus Kindermann publishes a collection that includes Symphonia in D-flat, Sonata, Sonata in D, Symphonia in D, Symphonia in F, and Rittornello in G, all for trombone, 2 cornetts, and basso continuo. Also included are Symphonia in E for 3 trombones, Intrada in C for 2 trombones and 3 cornetts, and Symphonia for 3 trombones and 2 cornetts (Whitwell Catalog Baroque 132).

1646—Andreas Hammerschmidt (c. 1611-1675) publishes the collection Vierdter Theil, which calls for trombone extensively. For example, Wer waltzet uns den Stein, Herr höre und sey mir gnädig, Laudate servi Domini, Verleih uns Friede genädiglich, and Alleluia lobet den Herren in seinem Heiligthumb all call for 3 trombones (Collver 119).

1648—Stephan Otto writes the collection Kronen Krönlein, several pieces of which call for trombones (Collver 142).

1649—In Nuremberg, Germany, Johann Andreas Herbst writes the cantata Danket dem Herrn, den er ist freundlich, which calls for 3 choirs: a choir of solo voices, a choir of violins, and a choir of trombones (Samuel 77). The same year, Herbst also writes Danck- und Lobgesang, which uses 4 trombones (Collver 122).

1651—Venice, Italy: Italian composer and organist Massimiliano Neri issues a collection of sonatas, Sonate da sonarsi con varii stromenti, scored for diverse combinations of instruments, including trombones. Regarding instrumentation, the collection’s preface mentions that performers may adapt instrumentation “to their taste.” Many of the sonatas may have been intended for the wedding of the Habsburg emperor Ferdinand III (Selfridge-Field, Instrumentation). Sonata 8 is scored for 2 cornetts, bassoon, and 3 trombones; Sonata 11 is scored for 2 violins, viola, 2 cornetts, bassoon, and 3 trombones; Sonata 12 is scored for 5 violins and 5 trombones; and Sonata 14 is scored for 2 cornetts, bassoon, 3 trombones, 2 violins, viola, and tiorba or viola (Collver 63; Winkler 304).

1659—Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, Sonata a 3 for 2 violins, trombone or viola da gamba, and continuo.

c. 1660—Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, Sonata a 3 for violin, trombone, bassoon, and continuo (Brewer, Instrumental 29).

1664—Heinrich Schütz writes his Christmas History, which includes a pair of trombones acting as obbligato instruments and specifically representing high priests (Smallman 151).

c. 1665—In Germany, Matthias Weckmann writes a set of 10 instrumental sonatas for the Hamburg Collegium Musicum. All but one of the sonatas designate trombone. All but two of the sonatas are scored for four instruments and continuo. The most common combination in the set is cornettino, violin, trombone, bassoon, and continuo. Alternates are given for many of the parts (Collver 73). Septenary publishes a good edition.

1665—Johann Rudolph Ahle’s chorale concerto, Zwingt der Saiten in Cithara, calls for 3 voices, 2 violins, and 4 trombones (Buelow History 228).

1665—In Vienna, Antonio Bertali’s Sonata Sublationis is copied. The work is written for 2 trumpets, 2 trumpets ad lib, 2 violins, 3 viols or trombones (notated respectively in alto, tenor, and bass clefs), and continuo (Bertali, Sonata Sublationis). We own (HBLL)

1667—Martin Schneider writes Erster Theil. The collection contains several works for the following instrumentation: soprano voice, alto trombone, tenor trombone, 2 trumpets (or cornettinos or violins), violone or trombone, and continuo (Collver 166).

1668—Heinrich Biber writes Intrada for 6 trumpets, 3 trombones, and timpani (Whitwell Catalog Baroque 2).

1669—In Vienna, Antonio Bertali (1605-1669) writes Missa Resurrectionis, which calls for 5 trombones, Missa Archiducalis, which calls for 4 trombones, and Sonata a 13, which calls for 3 trombones (Collver 44, 90).

1669—Vienna, Austria: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, Sonata a 4 “La Carioletta” for cornett, violin, trombone, and bassoon (Collver 68; Brewer, Instrumental 8).

1685—Germany: Daniel Speer, a former Stadtpfeifer, writes Recens fabricatus labor, oder neugebachene Taffel-Schnitz, which includes 7 sonatas for wind ensemble (including trombone). In addition to the works for 4 trombones (listed above) and trombone-cornetto quintet (listed above), the following sonatas specify trombone: Aufzug a 6 (2 different works that call for 6 trumpets or cornetts, trombone), Sonata a 4 (trumpet or cornett, 3 trombones, continuo), and Sonata a 4 (cornett, 3 trombones, continuo)  (Collver 68; Whitwell, Baroque 160; Speer Sonata).

1696—Leipzig, Germany: Gottfried Reiche, a Stadtpfeifer player of trumpet, horn, and cornett, writes Vier und Zwanzig neue Quatricinia, a set of 24 quartets for cornett and 3 trombones. All of the individual pieces are labeled either sonatina or fuga. Some alternate instrumentation, like trumpet for cornett, is indicated (Collver 65; Guion Trombone 156).

1697—Ulm, Germany: Daniel Speer writes Grundrichtiger, kurtzleicht und nöthiger Unterricht, which includes 6 pieces for trombone and 2 cornetts (Collver 69).

1701—Salzburg, Austria: Heinrich Biber uses trombones to double voices in his Missa St. Henrici (Cameron 81).

1704—Vienna, Austria: Marc’ Antonio Ziani’s aria, “Quel sembiante” from Il mistico Giobbe, features solo soprano voice with trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1704—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux’s Te Deum, K 271, calls for 2 trombones.

1705—Vienna, Austria: “Alme ingrate,” an aria from an anonymous, untitled sepolcro, features solo soprano voice with trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1705—Lübeck, Germany: Buxtehude calls for muted trombone in his Castrum doloris: “trombones and trumpets with mutes, and all other instruments similarly muted” (Schulze, Johann Sebastian Bach’s Orchestra).

1706—Vienna, Austria: Marc’ Antonio Ziani’s La morte vinta sul includes 3 arias that feature trombone as an obbligato instrument (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1707—Vienna, Austria: Marc’ Antonio Ziani’s aria, “Non é giunta” from Il Sacrifizio d’Isacco, features solo tenor voice with trombone obbligato (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1708—Vienna, Austria: Marc’ Antonio Ziani’s aria, “Se dei pur senz’ aita” from La passione nell’orto, features an obbligato alto trombone and is scored for alto voice and alto trombone (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

c. 1710—Stuttgart, Germany: Johann Georg Christian Störl writes 6 sonatas for cornett and 3 trombones (Collver 70).

1710—Italy: Francesco Magini writes 2 sonatas for the combination of 4 trombones and 2 cornetts (Collver 59).

1713—Francesco Magini publishes a collection of sonatas titled Sonate di Francesco Magini per il Campidoglio 1713. It includes 7 different sonatas scored for 4 trombones (alto, tenor, tenor, bass) and 2 cornetts (Collver 59).

1714—Weimar, Germany: J. S. Bach’s Cantata No. 21 utilizes trombones to double vocal lines (Terry 195).

1715—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux calls for 3 trombones in his Orfeo ed Euridice (Spitzer Table 1.1).

c. 1716—Johann Joseph Fux calls for trombone, violin, cornetto, and bassoon in his Sonata a 4, K. 347 (Collver 50).

1716—Vienna, Austria: Johann Joseph Fux’s aria, “Vedi che il Redentor” from Il fonte della salute, features soprano voice and obbligato alto trombone (Carter, Trombone Obbligatos).

1717—Sorau, Poland: Georg Philipp Telemann calls for 3 trombones in his vocal work (TB), Erhöre mich, wenn ich rufe (Collver 178).

1719—Sorau, Poland: Georg Philipp Telemann calls for 3 trombones in his vocal work (STB), Jesu, wirst du bald erscheinen (Collver 178).

1721—Hamburg, Germany: Telemann calls for 3 trombones in his vocal work (SATB), Sehet an die Exempel der Alten (Collver 178).

c. 1730—Georg Philipp Telemann writes Sinfonia [F major]an instrumental work for 3 trombones, cornett, flute, oboe, viola da gamba, violin, 2 violas, violone, and continuo (Collver 70).

1738—Handel uses trombones in 2 oratorios, Saul (in 4 choruses and 4 instrumental movements) and Israel in Egypt (in 10 choruses). Anthony Baines later calls the trombone parts in Saul the finest in the 18th century (Guion Trombone 144).

c. 1740—In Vienna, Wagenseil composes his Missa Transfige cor meum, which contains the unusual accompaniment of 2 violas or trombones and continuo (Mac Intyre 92).

1741—In Vienna, Georg Christoph Wagenseil writes Missa Sancti Antonii, which utilizes 2 trombones as obbligato instruments in the “Et incarnates” and “Agnus Dei” (Mac Intyre 671).

1742—In Vienna, Franz Tuma’s Messa della morte is performed. The requiem requires a solo alto trombone with solo alto voice in the “Tuba mirum” section (Smithers, Mozart’s Orchestral Brass).

1743—In Vienna, Georg Christoph Wagenseil uses 2 trombones in an obbligato role in his Missa solenne Immaculatae Conceptionis (Mac Intyre 674).

c. 1745—In Vienna, Ferdinand Schmidt, Kapellmeister at St. Stephens, composes Missa Primitiarum in C. The “Qui tollis” features 2 trombones in a prominent obbligato role (Mac Intyre 262).

c. 1745—In Vienna, Franz Tuma, in his Missa Tibi soli di Psalm 50, writes expressive obbligato lines for the 2 trombones (Mac Intyre 504).

1753—In Vienna, George Reutter writes his Requiem in C Minor, which calls for 2 trombones. In addition to doubling vocal lines, trombones play numerous fanfares and obbligatos. The “Tuba Mirum,” features a virtuosic trombone solo that accompanies the solo for alto voice (Chase 171). It is probably the earliest known composition of its kind to designate the “Tuba mirum” be performed by trombones. The title page bears the inscription “con tromboni Soli” (Wigness 30).

1755—Johann Ernst Eberlin composes the oratorio, Der blutschwitzende Jesus, which utilizes trombone in a soloistic manner (Guion Trombone 137).

 

 

Comments

  1. Thank you so much for putting this together. I start the early trombone portion of our graduate brass lit. course on Monday, and this is exactly what I have been done over that past many years. But yours is much more organized, visual and with much more detail. You just made my life easier! Thanks again!

    • You’re welcome, Bill! I’m glad it’s helpful. Cheers from your neighbors to the west!

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